I politici e gli amministratori dovrebbero essere interessati a creare contesti che promuovano il senso di comunità.
Se fossero buoni politici e buoni amministratori, e se avessero come stella polare il benessere dei propri cittadini.
Vi avevamo già parlato degli studi del professore di Harvard, Pinker, nei quali il ricercatore evidenziava – suo malgrado – la degradazione dei rapporti interpersonali e di comunità all’interno di società e quartieri multietnici.
Ora è uscita una ricerca che va ancora più in là.
Un recente studio teorico ed empirico ha scoperto che un quartiere nel quale si applichino politiche di ‘integrazione residenziale’ – ovvero si mettano insieme diverse etnie – in quello che è un nuovo esperimento sulla pelle delle persone per ‘promuovere la diversità’, impedisce la formazione di reti interpersonali forti che sono necessarie a promuovere il senso di comunità. In sostanza: più tenti di mischiare persone dall’identità etnica differente, più ottiene una società disgregata e un ambiente disgregante e alienante.
Questo spiega molto bene la condizione di degrado di molte periferie europee.
Usando modelli agent-based per simulare quartieri e le relazioni sociali all’interno degli stessi, lo studio ha cercato di comprendere se la dialettica tra comunità e diversità emerge da due principi di formazione dei rapporti: omofilia e prossimità. Il risultato suggerisce che quando le persone formano rapporti con gli altri, simili o vicini, i contesti che offrono opportunità di sviluppare un rispetto per la diversità sono diversi dai contesti che favoriscono il senso di comunità.
Tradotto, significa che ‘diversità’ – eufemismo per società multietnica – e senso della comunità sono incompatibili. Non puoi averle entrambe. O hai una, o hai l’altra.
Il buon governante dovrebbe leggere certi studi – che poi rispecchiano il senso comune – e non basarsi sulle idiozie che legge dai vari sociologi da salottino televisivo. Ma abbiamo un dubbio – in realtà più di un ‘dubbio’: e se fosse proprio questo, il desiderio dei nostri politici: instillare la diversità nella società per disgregarla e dominarla? Insomma, chi ci governa o è scemo o è un criminale.
Poi, possiamo fare un ulteriore passo logico, e riconoscere che una società disgregata e senza legami forti è, anche, una società violenta e disordinata. Chi non sa chi è, è intrinsecamente più violento di chi conosce se stesso. Di chi ha legami forti.
Basti osservare i paesi come il Brasile o il Venezuela. Solo una forte dose di controllo dello Stato evita scivolino nel caos più assoluto.
E forse è proprio questo che vogliono i nostri politici, trasformarci in una sorta di ‘venezuela’, per poi stringere la vite del controllo politico sulla nostra già misera libertà.
Gli Stati Uniti diverranno nei prossimi anni i maggiori produttori mondiali di petrolio e gas, materie prime di cui saranno presto anche esportatori. La notizia, destinata a modificare radicalmente gli equilibri geopolitici internazionali e probabilmente la percezione stessa dell’America nel mondo, è stata ufficializzata dal recente rapporto World Energy Outlook redatto dall’Agenzia Internazionale dell’Energia. “Il Nord America è in prima linea di una trasformazione radicale della produzione di petrolio e gas che interesserà tutte le regioni del mondo“ ha dichiarato il direttore esecutivo dell’AIE, Maria van der Hoeven. L’analisi evidenzia il culmine di un mutamento che in vent’anni ha visto Washington passare dal top della classifica mondiale dei consumatori di energia e importatori di petrolio al primo posto tra i produttori, anticamera della piena autosufficienza energetica. I primi a vedersi sorpassare dagli americani saranno i russi che nel 2015 scenderanno al secondo posto tra i produttori mondiali di gas ma due anni dopo toccherà ai sauditi perdere il primato tra i produttori di greggio. “Attorno al 2017, gli Stati Uniti diventeranno il principale produttore di petrolio, superando l’Arabia Saudita – ha sottolineato Fatih Birol, economista dell’agenzia. Le previsioni indicano che nel 2030 gli Stati Uniti produrranno petrolio sufficiente a soddisfare il fabbisogno interno e ne diventeranno esportatori. A premiare gli sforzi statunitensi sul fronte energetico non contribuiscono solo l’aumento della produzione interna e le tecniche estrattive improntate alla massima efficienza ricavando il metano dalle argille (shale gas) e combinando la perforazione orizzontale con la fratturazione idraulica. Anche le politiche di contenimento dei consumi e l’adozione di misure concrete per il risparmio energetico e lo sviluppo di biocarburanti per veicoli e aerei contribuiscono a ridurre il fabbisogno e la dipendenza dalle importazioni. I dati di oggi rivelano la tendenza definita dal rapporto: nei primi nove mesi di quest’anno gli Stati Uniti hanno estratto circa 6,2 milioni di barili di greggio, 1,2 milioni in più del 2008. “Nel 2011, per la prima volta dal 1949, gli Stati Uniti sono divenuti esportatori netti di prodotti raffinati, mentre la dipendenza dalle importazioni di petrolio greggio ha conosciuto un’inattesa inversione, scendendo in cinque anni dal 60 al 42 per cento grazie all’aumento della produzione (20 per cento dal 2008) e al declino dei consumi dopo il picco toccato nel 2007 ” ha scritto su “Affari Internazionali” Alberto Clò, professore ordinario di Economia industriale all’Università di Bologna e Direttore della Rivista Energia. “L’aumento della produzione di shale gas, salita al 40% della complessiva offerta, ha reso il paese sostanzialmente indipendente, creando oltre un milione di posti di lavoro e generando un surplus d’offerta che ha fatto crollare i prezzi interni del metano a livelli 3-4 volte inferiori a quelli del 2008 e a quelli oggi praticati in Europa” ha aggiunto Clò.” La produzione americana di greggio è prevista aumentare entro il 2020 da 9,0 sino a quasi 16,0 milioni barili/giorno e quella di gas metano da 575 sino a 709 miliardi metri cubi nel 2030. Citigroup ne stima il complessivo impatto incrementale sulla ricchezza americana nell’ordine di 2-3 punti percentuali, con un drastico taglio dell’energy bill con l’estero, che conta per oltre la metà delle complessive importazioni; un ulteriore rafforzamento del dollaro; forte crescita dell’industria e dell’occupazione.” Nello stesso periodo in cui gli Stati Uniti raggiungeranno la piena autosufficienza energetica, l’AIE prevede che l’Asia continui a sostenere la domanda globale di petrolio, destinata a crescere di 7 milioni di barili al giorno entro il 2020 e a raggiungere i 100 milioni di barili al giorno nel 2035 contro gli 87 milioni di barili del 2011. I cambiamenti sul mercato dell’oro nero indicati dall’agenzia non riguardano solo gli Stati Uniti. L’Iraq ad esempio è destinato ad aumentare del 45 per cento la sua produzione entro il 2035 superando la Russia per livello di esportazioni. Difficile valutare l’impatto sui prezzi poiché i fattori che lo determinano possono variare rapidamente e non dipendere solo dal nuovo ruolo degli Stati Uniti, ma secondo l’AIE il costo del greggio salirà dai 108 dollari al barile di oggi a circa 125 dollari (in termini di valore costante al netto dell’inflazione, pari a 215 dollari in termini reali) anche se negli ultimi tempi gli sbalzi sono stati vertiginosi: da un dollaro e mezzo al barile del 1970 agli 8 dollari del 1974, dai 147 dollari del 2008 ai 50 dell’anno successivo. Le stime sui prezzi dei prossimi 20 anni non tengono conto infatti delle variabili rappresentate da conflitti e tensioni nelle aree di maggior produzione di petrolio e gas che, dal Medio Oriente all’Asia Centrale all’Africa, sono in buona parte ben poco stabili o già destabilizzate. Sui prezzi dipenderà inoltre il mantenimento di accordi tra i produttori come quelli in vigore oggi nell’ambito dell’Organizzazione dei Paesi produttori di petrolio (OPEC) o quello stipulato tra Stati Uniti e Arabia Saudita per garantire stabilità nelle forniture e nei prezzi ai mercati internazionali. Il primato statunitense potrebbe cambiare radicalmente gli equilibri del mercato energetico portando i produttori a dirigere i flussi sempre di più verso l’Asia che con i suoi colossi economici e industriali avranno sempre più bisogno di energia. L’AIE valuta che Cina, India e Medio Oriente assorbiranno oltre il 60 per cento dell’aumento del fabbisogno di energia nei prossimi anni. Un processo del resto previsto da tempo e in parte già in atto mentre il ruolo degli Stati Uniti tra i produttori di gas e petrolio potrebbe rendere più improbabile il distacco delle quotazioni energetiche dal dollaro propugnato oggi da Iran e Cina. Al di là dell’impatto benefico sull’economia nazionale e sulla bilancia dei pagamenti, l’autonomia energetica potrebbe influire pesantemente sulle priorità strategiche di Washington e sulla percezione e difesa dei suoi interessi nazionali.
Se non godesse dell’immenso credito concesso gratuitamente da media e opinione pubblica internazionali fin da prima della sua elezione, Barack Obama verrebbe oggi invitato da molti analisti e persino da esponenti del suo partito a lasciare la Casa Bianca per manifesta incapacità. In effetti non si ricorda una così lunga e totale serie di insuccessi conseguiti da un presidente americano nei primi 8 mesi trascorsi alla Casa Bianca. Tralasciando la situazione interna agli USA, con una disoccupazione ormai vicina al 10 per cento e una riforma sanitaria “obamiana” che sta spaccando il Paese, è sui temi internazionali e sulla sicurezza che i “flop” sono sempre più evidenti. La linea morbida con l’Iran ha ottenuto i risultai sperati….da Ahmadinejad, secondo molti analisti arabi ormai quasi pronto ad annunciare il possesso della bomba atomica. A differenza di Bush, che aveva dimostrato di saper usare la forza quando lo riteneva necessario, Obama sembra venir considerato una “tigre di carta” e del resto è stato lui stesso a dire al Letterman Show (dove nessun presidente era mai andato) che gli americani sono stanchi di guerra. Una frase che ha fatto felici iraniani, nordcoreani, talebani e tutti i nemici dell’Occidente, ringalluzziti dall’ammissione di debolezza del numero uno americano. Flop anche con la Russia dalla quale Obama sperava di incassare collaborazione nella questione iraniana rinunciando allo scido antimissile e alle basi in Polonia e Repubblica Ceca. Illusioni tramontate appena Mosca ha fatto sapere che non sosterrà l’inasprimento delle sanzioni a Teheran anche se l’aspetto più clamoroso della beffa russa all’ingenuo Obama potrebbe riguardare la fornitura di sistemi di difesa aerea S-300 al Venezuela finanziati con un prestito russo a Caracas di 2,2 miliardi di dollari. Missili che l’Iran chiede da anni e Mosca non ha mai concesso per non far infuriare Washington. Molti però sospettano (anche Hillary Clinton) che le dieci batterie ordinate da Hugo Chavez vengano poi trasferite a difesa dei siti atomici iraniani, ipotesi più che credibile considerati anche gli stretti rapporti di alleanza e amicizia tra i due regimi e i due leader. L’imbarazzo di Obama per i clamorosi insuccessi della sua presidenza è emerso anche dal ridicolo e dilettantesco impegno diretto, insieme alla moglie Michelle, per far assegnare alla sua città, Chicago, le Olimpiadi 2016. Manifestazione che si terrà invece a Rio de Janeiro con il risultato che Obama ha perso tutta la credibilità e il prestigio messi sul tavolo per un obiettivo che certo non valeva “la faccia” del presidente. Sempre nulla al confronto della ridicola melina che coinvolge Obama e tutto il suo staff sulla questione afgana. Tre ore di vertice nello Studio Ovale, il 30 settembre, non sembrano aver convinto Barack Obama a prendere decisioni circa l’invio di altri 40 mila militari in Afghanistan ritenuti indispensabili e urgenti dal comandante alleato a Kabul, il generale Stanley McChrystal. All’incontro erano presenti il vicepresidente Joe Biden, i vertici della sicurezza nazionale e delle forze armate, il segretario di stato Hillary Clinton e, in video conferenza da Kabul, anche il generale McChrystal. Nessuno ha rilasciato dichiarazioni alla fine della riunione a conferma del perdurare di un’indecisione sempre più imbarazzante riguardo al conflitto afgano. Oltre alla difficoltà politica di accordare altre truppe contro il parere della maggioranza del suo partito e con un’opinione pubblica che i sondaggi indicano per oltre metà contraria al conflitto, Obama deve fare i conti con le diverse opinione dei suoi più stretti collaboratori. Il primo a mettere in dubbio le richieste di McChrystal sembra essere proprio il numero uno del Pentagono, Robert Gates, che secondo il Wall Street Journal avrebbe espresso il dubbio che “anche 40 mila truppe in più non possono darci slancio sufficiente sul terreno per proteggere gli afgani se la situazione nel nord e nell’ovest continua a deteriorarsi”. Una valutazione che considera anche il peggioramento della situazione nei settori a comando tedesco e italiano anche se proprio Gates era stato un fautore del “surge afgano”, l’aumento di truppe per consolidare la sicurezza sulla falsariga di quanto attuato in Iraq negli anni scorsi. Forse Gates ha fiutato il vento e, nominato da Bush e confermato da Obama al Pentagono, vuole evitare di sbilanciarsi per non venire sacrificato dal presidente alle prime difficoltà. Ricordate le dichiarazioni di Obama in campagna elettorale e fino al marzo scorso circa la “guerra giusta” da vincere contro al-Qaeda in Afghanistan e la “guerra sbagliata” di Bush in Iraq ? Tutto dimenticato, per Obama ormai gli americani sono “stanchi di guerra” e sono bastati poco più di cento caduti tra luglio e agosto sul fronte afgano a far cambiare idea al presidente. Se Obama e Gates sembrano voler mantenere il livello di truppe americane intorno ai 68.000 effettivi previsti entro la fine dell’anno, a favore di un rafforzamento della “counterinsurgency” restano tutti i vertici militari del Pentagono (dall’ammiraglio Mike Mullen, al generale David Petraeus) e Hillary Clinton. Il vice presidente Joe Biden, si improvvisa stratega e vorrebbe invece ridurre le truppe in Afghanistan per aumentare le forze speciali assegnate ai raids contro i vertici di al-Qaeda in territorio pakistano, tesi che Gates avrebbe già bocciato perché “non crede sia la via verso il successo in Afghanistan”. Anche perché sarebbe difficile colpire con più forza in Pakistan perdendo il controllo di gran parte dell’Afghanistan. Di fronte a questo quadro caratterizzato da dilettantismo, opzioni contraddittorie e idee confuse è lecito chiedersi se il presidente che ha appena ricevuto il Nobel per la Pace avrà la capacità di condurre la guerra afgana nel modo più appropriato. Obama sembra comunque avere ancora un asso da giocare: prendere tempo evitando di esprimersi ora sul poco popolare tema dei rinforzi per far trascorrere l’inverno, stagione che in Afghanistan rallenta notevolmente le operazioni militari. I rinforzi a McChrystal potrebbero venire concessi in primavera contando sull’impatto mediatico e politico del progressivo ritiro di truppe dall’Iraq. I 124.000 militari ancora a Baghdad dovrebbero scendere a 50.000 entro agosto 2010 ma il generale Ray Odierno, alla testa dell’operazione “Iraqi Freedom”, ha dichiarato che il rimpatrio dei 74.000 militari potrebbe essere più rapido e completarsi già in primavera. Una bella notizia per Obama che potrà attenuare con il massiccio rientro dall’Iraq l’impatto determinato dall’invio dei rinforzi in Afghanistan. Che potrebbero essere anche meno dei 40.000 richiesti se qualche alleato europeo accettasse di contribuire al “surge” afgano. Incontrando il segretario generale dell’Alleanza Atlantica, il danese Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Obama ha voluto precisare che quella afgana “non è una guerra degli Usa ma della Nato”. Affermazione certo incontestabile anche se sono gli USA a guidare le operazioni da loto stessi iniziate dopo l’11 settembre, sono gli USA a fornire i due terzi delle truppe e l’80 per cento degli aerei e i consiglieri diplomatici stranieri assegnati ai governatori di tutte le province afgane non provengono dalla Nato ma dal Dipartimento di Stato di Washington. Vuoi vedere che Obama mette già le mani avanti e, fiutato il rischio che la vittoria sfumi, vuole cominciare a dividere con gli alleati il fardello della sconfitta ?
UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (Partition Plan) November 29, 1947
Listen to UN vote
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 called for the partition of the British-ruled Palestine Mandate into a Jewish state and an Arab state. It was approved on November 29, 1947 with 33 votes in favor, 13 against, 10 abstentions and one absent (see list at end of document).
The resolution was accepted by the Jews in Palestine, yet rejected by the Arabs in Palestine and the Arab states.
The General Assembly,
Having met in special session at the request of the mandatory Power to constitute and instruct a Special Committee to prepare for the consideration of the question of the future Government of Palestine at the second regular session;
Having constituted a Special Committee and instructed it to investigate all questions and issues relevant to the problem of Palestine, and to prepare proposals for the solution of the problem, and
Having received and examined the report of the Special Committee (document A/364)(1) including a number of unanimous recommendations and a plan of partition with economic union approved by the majority of the Special Committee,
Considers that the present situation in Palestine is one which is likely to impair the general welfare and friendly relations among nations;
Takes note of the declaration by the mandatory Power that it plans to complete its evacuation of Palestine by l August 1948;
Recommends to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, and to all other Members of the United Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the future Government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union set out below;
The Security Council take the necessary measures as provided for in the plan for its implementation;
The Security Council consider, if circumstances during the transitional period require such consideration, whether the situation in Palestine constitutes a threat to the peace. If it decides that such a threat exists, and in order to maintain international peace and security, the Security Council should supplement the authorization of the General Assembly by taking measures, under Articles 39 and 41 of the Charter, to empower the United Nations Commission, as provided in this resolution, to exercise in Palestine the functions which are assigned to it by this resolution;
The Security Council determine as a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, in accordance with Article 39 of the Charter, any attempt to alter by force the settlement envisaged by this resolution;
The Trusteeship Council be informed of the responsibilities envisaged for it in this plan;
Calls upon the inhabitants of Palestine to take such steps as may be necessary on their part to put this plan into effect;
Appeals to all Governments and all peoples to refrain from taking any action which might hamper or delay the carrying out of these recommendations, and
Authorizes the Secretary-General to reimburse travel and subsistence expenses of the members of the Commission referred to in Part 1, Section B, Paragraph I below, on such basis and in such form as he may determine most appropriate in the circumstances, and to provide the Commission with the necessary staff to assist in carrying out the functions assigned to the Commission by the General Assembly.*
The General Assembly,
Authorizes the Secretary-General to draw from the Working Capital Fund a sum not to exceed 2,000,000 dollars for the purposes set forth in the last paragraph of the resolution on the future government of Palestine.
PLAN OF PARTITION WITH ECONOMIC UNION
Part I. – Future Constitution and Government of Palestine
A. TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE
The Mandate for Palestine shall terminate as soon as possible but in any case not later than 1 August 1948.
The armed forces of the mandatory Power shall be progressively withdrawn from Palestine, the withdrawal to be completed as soon as possible but in any case not later than 1 August 1948. The mandatory Power shall advise the Commission, as far in advance as possible, of its intention to terminate the mandate and to evacuate each area. The mandatory Power shall use its best endeavours to ensure that an area situated in the territory of the Jewish State, including a seaport and hinterland adequate to provide facilities for a substantial immigration, shall be evacuated at the earliest possible date and in any event not later than 1 February 1948.
Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem, set forth in Part III of this Plan, shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory Power has been completed but in any case not later than 1 October 1948. The boundaries of the Arab State, the Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem shall be as described in Parts II and III below.
The period between the adoption by the General Assembly of its recommendation on the question of Palestine and the establishment of the independence of the Arab and Jewish States shall be a transitional period.
B. STEPS PREPARATORY TO INDEPENDENCE
A Commission shall be set up consisting of one representative of each of five Member States. The Members represented on the Commission shall be elected by the General Assembly on as broad a basis, geographically and otherwise, as possible.
The administration of Palestine shall, as the mandatory Power withdraws its armed forces, be progressively turned over to the Commission, which shall act in conformity with the recommendations of the General Assembly, under the guidance of the Security Council. The mandatory Power shall to the fullest possible extent coordinate its plans for withdrawal with the plans of the Commission to take over and administer areas which have been evacuated. In the discharge of this administrative responsibility the Commission shall have authority to issue necessary regulations and take other measures as required. The mandatory Power shall not take any action to prevent, obstruct or delay the implementation by the Commission of the measures recommended by the General Assembly.
On its arrival in Palestine the Commission shall proceed to carry out measures for the establishment of the frontiers of the Arab and Jewish States and the City of Jerusalem in accordance with the general lines of the recommendations of the General Assembly on the partition of Palestine. Nevertheless, the boundaries as described in Part II of this Plan are to be modified in such a way that village areas as a rule will not be divided by state boundaries unless pressing reasons make that necessary.
The Commission, after consultation with the democratic parties and other public organizations of the Arab and Jewish States, shall select and establish in each State as rapidly as possible a Provisional Council of Government. The activities of both the Arab and Jewish Provisional Councils of Government shall be carried out under the general direction of the Commission. If by 1 April 1948 a Provisional Council of Government cannot be selected for either of the States, or, if selected, cannot carry out its functions, the Commission shall communicate that fact to the Security Council for such action with respect to that State as the Security Council may deem proper, and to the Secretary-General for communication to the Members of the United Nations.
Subject to the provisions of these recommendations, during the transitional period the Provisional Councils of Government, acting under the Commission, shall have full authority in the areas under their control including authority over matters of immigration and land regulation.
The Provisional Council of Government of each State, acting under the Commission, shall progressively receive from the Commission full responsibility for the administration of that State in the period between the termination of the Mandate and the establishment of the State’s independence.
The Commission shall instruct the Provisional Councils of Government of both the Arab and Jewish States, after their formation, to proceed to the establishment of administrative organs of government, central and local.
The Provisional Council of Government of each State shall, within the shortest time possible, recruit an armed militia from the residents of that State, sufficient in number to maintain internal order and to prevent frontier clashes. This armed militia in each State shall, for operational purposes, be under the command of Jewish or Arab officers resident in that State, but general political and military control, including the choice of the militia’s High Command, shall be exercised by the Commission.
The Provisional Council of Government of each State shall, not later than two months after the withdrawal of the armed forces of the mandatory Power, hold elections to the Constituent Assembly which shall be conducted on democratic lines. The election regulations in each State shall be drawn up by the Provisional Council of Government and approved by the Commission. Qualified voters for each State for this election shall be persons over eighteen years of age who are (a) Palestinian citizens residing in that State; and (b) Arabs and Jews residing in the State, although not Palestinian citizens, who, before voting, have signed a notice of intention to become citizens of such State. Arabs and Jews residing in the City of Jerusalem who have signed a notice of intention to become citizens, the Arabs of the Arab State and the Jews of the Jewish State, shall be entitled to vote in the Arab and Jewish States respectively. Women may vote and be elected to the Constituent Assemblies. During the transitional period no Jew shall be permitted to establish residence in the area of the proposed Arab State, and no Arab shall be permitted to establish residence in the area of the proposed Jewish State, except by special leave of the Commission.
The Constituent Assembly of each State shall draft a democratic constitution for its State and choose a provisional government to succeed the Provisional Council of Government appointed by the Commission. The Constitutions of the States shall embody Chapters 1 and 2 of the Declaration provided for in section C below and include, inter alia, provisions for:
Establishing in each State a legislative body elected by universal suffrage and by secret ballot on the basis of proportional representation, and an executive body responsible to the legislature;
Settling all international disputes in which the State may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered;
Accepting the obligation of the State to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purpose of the United Nations;
Guaranteeing to all persons equal and non-discriminatory rights in civil, political, economic and religious matters and the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of religion, language, speech and publication, education, assembly and association;
Preserving freedom of transit and visit for all residents and citizens of the other State in Palestine and the City of Jerusalem, subject to considerations of national security, provided that each State shall control residence within its borders.
The Commission shall appoint a preparatory economic commission of three members to make whatever arrangements are possible for economic co-operation, with a view to establishing, as soon as practicable, the Economic Union and the Joint Economic Board, as provided in section D below.
During the period between the adoption of the recommendations on the question of Palestine by the General Assembly and the termination of the Mandate, the mandatory Power in Palestine shall maintain full responsibility for administration in areas from which it has not withdrawn its armed forces. The Commission shall assist the mandatory Power in the carrying out of these functions. Similarly the mandatory Power shall co-operate with the Commission in the execution of its functions.
With a view to ensuring that there shall be continuity in the functioning of administrative services and that, on the withdrawal of the armed forces of the mandatory Power, the whole administration shall be in the charge of the Provisional Councils and the Joint Economic Board, respectively, acting under the Commission, there shall be a progressive transfer, from the mandatory Power to the Commission, of responsibility for all the functions of government, including that of maintaining law and order in the areas from which the forces of the mandatory Power have been withdrawn.
The Commission shall be guided in its activities by the recommendations of the General Assembly and by such instructions as the Security Council may consider necessary to issue. The measures taken by the Commission, within the recommendations of the General Assembly, shall become immediately effective unless the Commission has previously received contrary instructions from the Security Council. The Commission shall render periodic monthly progress reports, or more frequently if desirable, to the Security Council.
The Commission shall make its final report to the next regular session of the General Assembly and to the Security Council simultaneously.
A declaration shall be made to the United Nations by the Provisional Government of each proposed State before independence. It shall contain, inter alia, the following clauses:
The stipulations contained in the Declaration are recognized as fundamental laws of the State and no law, regulation or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.
Chapter I: Holy Places, Religious Buildings and Sites
Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall not be denied or impaired.
In so far as Holy Places are concerned, the liberty of access, visit, and transit shall be guaranteed, in conformity with existing rights, to all residents and citizen of the other State and of the City of Jerusalem, as well as to aliens, without distinction as to nationality, subject to requirements of national security, public order and decorum. Similarly, freedom of worship shall be guaranteed in conformity with existing rights, subject to the maintenance of public order and decorum.
Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall be preserved. No act shall be permitted which may in an way impair their sacred character. If at any time it appears to the Government that any particular Holy Place, religious, building or site is in need of urgent repair, the Government may call upon the community or communities concerned to carry out such repair. The Government may carry it out itself at the expense of the community or community concerned if no action is taken within a reasonable time.
No taxation shall be levied in respect of any Holy Place, religious building or site which was exempt from taxation on the date of the creation of the State. No change in the incidence of such taxation shall be made which would either discriminate between the owners or occupiers of Holy Places, religious buildings or sites, or would place such owners or occupiers in a position less favourable in relation to the general incidence of taxation than existed at the time of the adoption of the Assembly’s recommendations.
The Governor of the City of Jerusalem shall have the right to determine whether the provisions of the Constitution of the State in relation to Holy Places, religious buildings and sites within the borders of the State and the religious rights appertaining thereto, are being properly applied and respected, and to make decisions on the basis of existing rights in cases of disputes which may arise between the different religious communities or the rites of a religious community with respect to such places, buildings and sites. He shall receive full co-operation and such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise of his functions in the State.
Chapter 2: Religious and Minority Rights
Freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all forms of worship, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, shall be ensured to all.
No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants on the ground of race, religion, language or sex.
All persons within the jurisdiction of the State shall be entitled to equal protection of the laws.
The family law and personal status of the various minorities and their religious interests, including endowments, shall be respected.
Except as may be required for the maintenance of public order and good government, no measure shall be taken to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of religious or charitable bodies of all faiths or to discriminate against any representative or member of these bodies on the ground of his religion or nationality.
The State shall ensure adequate primary and secondary education for the Arab and Jewish minority, respectively, in its own language and its cultural traditions. The right of each community to maintain its own schools for the education of its own members in its own language, while conforming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the State may impose, shall not be denied or impaired. Foreign educational establishments shall continue their activity on the basis of their existing rights.
No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any citizen of the State of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the Press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.(3)
No expropriation of land owned by an Arab in the Jewish State (by a Jew in the Arab State)(4) shall be allowed except for public purposes. In all cases of expropriation full compensation as fixed by the Supreme Court shall be said previous to dispossession.
Chapter 3: Citizenship, International Conventions and Financial Obligations
1. Citizenship Palestinian citizens residing in Palestine outside the City of Jerusalem, as well as Arabs and Jews who, not holding Palestinian citizenship, reside in Palestine outside the City of Jerusalem shall, upon the recognition of independence, become citizens of the State in which they are resident and enjoy full civil and political rights. Persons over the age of eighteen years may opt, within one year from the date of recognition of independence of the State in which they reside, for citizenship of the other State, providing that no Arab residing in the area of the proposed Arab State shall have the right to opt for citizenship in the proposed Jewish State and no Jew residing in the proposed Jewish State shall have the right to opt for citizenship in the proposed Arab State. The exercise of this right of option will be taken to include the wives and children under eighteen years of age of persons so opting.
Arabs residing in the area of the proposed Jewish State and Jews residing in the area of the proposed Arab State who have signed a notice of intention to opt for citizenship of the other State shall be eligible to vote in the elections to the Constituent Assembly of that State, but not in the elections to the Constituent Assembly of the State in which they reside.
2. International conventions
The State shall be bound by all the international agreements and conventions, both general and special, to which Palestine has become a party. Subject to any right of denunciation provided for therein, such agreements and conventions shall be respected by the State throughout the period for which they were concluded.
Any dispute about the applicability and continued validity of international conventions or treaties signed or adhered to by the mandatory Power on behalf of Palestine shall be referred to the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provisions of the Statute of the Court.
3. Financial obligations
The State shall respect and fulfil all financial obligations of whatever nature assumed on behalf of Palestine by the mandatory Power during the exercise of the Mandate and recognized by the State. This provision includes the right of public servants to pensions, compensation or gratuities.
These obligations shall be fulfilled through participation in the Joint Economic Board in respect of those obligations applicable to Palestine as a whole, and individually in respect of those applicable to, and fairly apportionable between, the States.
A Court of Claims, affiliated with the Joint Economic Board, and composed of one member appointed by the United Nations, one representative of the United Kingdom and one representative of the State concerned, should be established. Any dispute between the United Kingdom and the State respecting claims not recognized by the latter should be referred to that Court.
Commercial concessions granted in respect of any part of Palestine prior to the adoption of the resolution by the General Assembly shall continue to be valid according to their terms, unless modified by agreement between the concession-holders and the State.
Chapter 4: Miscellaneous Provisions
The provisions of chapters 1 and 2 of the declaration shall be under the guarantee of the United Nations, and no modifications shall be made in them without the assent of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Any Member of the United Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the General Assembly any infraction or danger of infraction of any of these stipulations, and the General Assembly may thereupon make such recommendations as it may deem proper in the circumstances.
Any dispute relating to the application or interpretation of this declaration shall be referred, at the request of either party, to the International Court of Justice, unless the parties agree to another mode of settlement.
D. ECONOMIC UNION AND TRANSIT
The Provisional Council of Government of each State shall enter into an undertaking with respect to Economic Union and Transit. This undertaking shall be drafted by the Commission provided for in section B, paragraph 1, utilizing to the greatest possible extent the advice and cooperation of representative organizations and bodies from each of the proposed States. It shall contain provisions to establish the Economic Union of Palestine and provide for other matters of common interest. If by 1 April 1948 the Provisional Councils of Government have not entered into the undertaking, the undertaking shall be put into force by the Commission.The Economic Union of Palestine
The objectives of the Economic Union of Palestine shall be:
A customs union;
A joint currency system providing for a single foreign exchange rate;
Operation in the common interest on a non-discriminatory basis of railways inter-State highways; postal, telephone and telegraphic services and ports and airports involved in international trade and commerce;
Joint economic development, especially in respect of irrigation, land reclamation and soil conservation;
Access for both States and for the City of Jerusalem on a non-discriminatory basis to water and power facilities.
There shall be established a Joint Economic Board, which shall consist of three representatives of each of the two States and three foreign members appointed by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The foreign members shall be appointed in the first instance for a term of three years; they shall serve as individuals and not as representatives of States.
The functions of the Joint Economic Board shall be to implement either directly or by delegation the measures necessary to realize the objectives of the Economic Union. It shall have all powers of organization and administration necessary to fulfil its functions.
The States shall bind themselves to put into effect the decisions of the Joint Economic Board. The Board’s decisions shall be taken by a majority vote.
In the event of failure of a State to take the necessary action the Board may, by a vote of six members, decide to withhold an appropriate portion of the part of the customs revenue to which the State in question is entitled under the Economic Union. Should the State persist in its failure to cooperate, the Board may decide by a simple majority vote upon such further sanctions, including disposition of funds which it has withheld, as it may deem appropriate.
In relation to economic development, the functions of the Board shall be planning, investigation and encouragement of joint development projects, but it shall not undertake such projects except with the assent of both States and the City of Jerusalem, in the event that Jerusalem is directly involved in the development project.
In regard to the joint currency system, the currencies circulating in the two States and the City of Jerusalem shall be issued under the authority of the Joint Economic Board, which shall be the sole issuing authority and which shall determine the reserves to be held against such currencies.
So far as is consistent with paragraph 2(b) above, each State may operate its own central bank, control its own fiscal and credit policy, its foreign exchange receipts and expenditures, the grant of import licences, and may conduct international financial operations on its own faith and credit. During the first two years after the termination of the Mandate, the Joint Economic Board shall have the authority to take such measures as may be necessary to ensure that – to the extent that the total foreign exchange revenues of the two States from the export of goods and services permit, and provided that each State takes appropriate measures to conserve its own foreign exchange resources – each State shall have available, in any twelve months’ period, foreign exchange sufficient to assure the supply of quantities of imported goods and services for consumption in its territory equivalent to the quantities of such goods and services consumed in that territory in the twelve months’ period ending 31 December 1947.
All economic authority not specifically vested in the Joint Economic Board is reserved to each State.
There shall be a common customs tariff with complete freedom of trade between the States, and between the States and the City of Jerusalem.
The tariff schedules shall be drawn up by a Tariff Commission, consisting of representatives of each of the States in equal numbers, and shall be submitted to the Joint Economic Board for approval by a majority vote. In case of disagreement in the Tariff Commission, the Joint Economic Board shall arbitrate the points of difference. In the event that the Tariff Commission fails to draw up any schedule by a date to be fixed, the Joint Economic Board shall determine the tariff schedule.
The following items shall be a first charge on the customs and other common revenue of the Joint Economic Board:
The expenses of the customs service and of the operation of the joint services;
The administrative expenses of the Joint Economic Board;
The financial obligations of the Administration of Palestine, consisting of:
The service of the outstanding public debt;
The cost of superannuation benefits, now being paid or falling due in the future, in accordance with the rules and to the extent established by paragraph 3 of chapter 3 above.
After these obligations have been met in full, the surplus revenue from the customs and other common services shall be divided in the following manner: not less than 5 per cent and not more than 10 per cent to the City of Jerusalem; the residue shall be allocated to each State by the Joint Economic Board equitably, with the objective of maintaining a sufficient and suitable level of government and social services in each State, except that the share of either State shall not exceed the amount of that State’s contribution to the revenues of the Economic Union by more than approximately four million pounds in any year. The amount granted may be adjusted by the Board according to the price level in relation to the prices prevailing at the time of the establishment of the Union. After five years, the principles of the distribution of the joint revenue may be revised by the Joint Economic Board on a basis of equity.
All international conventions and treaties affecting customs tariff rates, and those communications services under the jurisdiction of the Joint Economic Board, shall be entered into by both States. In these matters, the two States shall be bound to act in accordance with the majority of the Joint Economic Board.
The Joint Economic Board shall endeavour to secure for Palestine’s exports fair and equal access to world markets.
All enterprises operated by the Joint Economic Board shall pay fair wages on a uniform basis.Freedom of Transit and Visit
The undertaking shall contain provisions preserving freedom of transit and visit for all residents or citizens of both States and of the City of Jerusalem, subject to security considerations; provided that each State and the City shall control residence within its borders.Termination, Modification and Interpretation of the Undertaking
The undertaking and any treaty issuing therefrom shall remain in force for a period of ten years. It shall continue in force until notice of termination, to take effect two years thereafter, is given by either of the parties.
During the initial ten-year period, the undertaking and any treaty issuing therefrom may not be modified except by consent of both parties and with the approval of the General Assembly.
Any dispute relating to the application or the interpretation of the undertaking and any treaty issuing therefrom shall be referred, at the request of either party, to the International Court Of Justice, unless the parties agree to another mode of settlement.
The movable assets of the Administration of Palestine shall be allocated to the Arab and Jewish States and the City of Jerusalem on an equitable basis. Allocations should be made by the United Nations Commission referred to iii section B, paragraph 1, above. Immovable assets shall become the property of the government of the territory in which they are situated.
During the period between the appointment of the United Nations Commission and the termination of the Mandate, the mandatory Power shall, except in respect of ordinary operations, consult with the Commission on any measure which it may contemplate involving the liquidation, disposal or encumbering of the assets of the Palestine Government, such as the accumulated treasury surplus, the proceeds of Government bond issues, State lands or any other asset.
F. ADMISSION TO MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNITED NATIONS
When the independence of either the Arab or the Jewish State as envisaged in this plan has become effective and the declaration and undertaking, as envisaged in this plan, have been signed by either of them, sympathetic consideration should be given to its application for admission to membership in the United Nations in accordance with article 4 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Part II. – Boundaries
A. THE ARAB STATE
The area of the Arab State in Western Galilee is bounded on the west by the Mediterranean and on the north by the frontier of the Lebanon from Ras en Naqura to a point north of Saliha. From there the boundary proceeds southwards, leaving the built-up area of Saliha in the Arab State, to join the southernmost point of this village. There it follows the western boundary line of the villages of ‘Alma, Rihaniya and Teitaba, thence following the northern boundary line of Meirun village to join the Acre-Safad Sub-District boundary line. It follows this line to a point west of Es Sammu’i village and joins it again at the northernmost point of Farradiya. Thence it follows the sub-district boundary line to the Acre-Safad main road. From here it follows the western boundary of Kafr-I’nan village until it reaches the Tiberias-Acre Sub-District boundary line, passing to the west of the junction of the Acre-Safad and Lubiya-Kafr-I’nan roads. From the south-west corner of Kafr-I’nan village the boundary line follows the western boundary of the Tiberias Sub-District to a point close to the boundary line between the villages of Maghar and ‘Eilabun, thence bulging out to the west to include as much of the eastern part of the plain of Battuf as is necessary for the reservoir proposed by the Jewish Agency for the irrigation of lands to the south and east.
The boundary rejoins the Tiberias Sub-District boundary at a point on the Nazareth-Tiberias road south-east of the built-up area of Tur’an; thence it runs southwards, at first following the sub-district boundary and then passing between the Kadoorie Agricultural School and Mount Tabor, to a point due south at the base of Mount Tabor. From here it runs due west, parallel to the horizontal grid line 230, to the north-east corner of the village lands of Tel Adashim. It then runs to the northwest corner of these lands, whence it turns south and west so as to include in the Arab State the sources of the Nazareth water supply in Yafa village. On reaching Ginneiger it follows the eastern, northern and western boundaries of the lands of this village to their south-west comer, whence it proceeds in a straight line to a point on the Haifa-Afula railway on the boundary between the villages of Sarid and El-Mujeidil. This is the point of intersection. The south-western boundary of the area of the Arab State in Galilee takes a line from this point, passing northwards along the eastern boundaries of Sarid and Gevat to the north-eastern corner of Nahalal, proceeding thence across the land of Kefar ha Horesh to a central point on the southern boundary of the village of ‘Ilut, thence westwards along that village boundary to the eastern boundary of Beit Lahm, thence northwards and north-eastwards along its western boundary to the north-eastern corner of Waldheim and thence north-westwards across the village lands of Shafa ‘Amr to the southeastern corner of Ramat Yohanan. From here it runs due north-north-east to a point on the Shafa ‘Amr-Haifa road, west of its junction with the road of I’billin. From there it proceeds north-east to a point on the southern boundary of I’billin situated to the west of the I’billin-Birwa road. Thence along that boundary to its westernmost point, whence it turns to the north, follows across the village land of Tamra to the north-westernmost corner and along the western boundary of Julis until it reaches the Acre-Safad road. It then runs westwards along the southern side of the Safad-Acre road to the Galilee-Haifa District boundary, from which point it follows that boundary to the sea.
The boundary of the hill country of Samaria and Judea starts on the Jordan River at the Wadi Malih south-east of Beisan and runs due west to meet the Beisan-Jericho road and then follows the western side of that road in a north-westerly direction to the junction of the boundaries of the Sub-Districts of Beisan, Nablus, and Jenin. From that point it follows the Nablus-Jenin sub-District boundary westwards for a distance of about three kilometres and then turns north-westwards, passing to the east of the built-up areas of the villages of Jalbun and Faqqu’a, to the boundary of the Sub-Districts of Jenin and Beisan at a point northeast of Nuris. Thence it proceeds first northwestwards to a point due north of the built-up area of Zie’in and then westwards to the Afula-Jenin railway, thence north-westwards along the District boundary line to the point of intersection on the Hejaz railway. From here the boundary runs southwestwards, including the built-up area and some of the land of the village of Kh. Lid in the Arab State to cross the Haifa-Jenin road at a point on the district boundary between Haifa and Samaria west of El- Mansi. It follows this boundary to the southernmost point of the village of El-Buteimat. From here it follows the northern and eastern boundaries of the village of Ar’ara rejoining the Haifa-Samaria district boundary at Wadi ‘Ara, and thence proceeding south-south-westwards in an approximately straight line joining up with the western boundary of Qaqun to a point east of the railway line on the eastern boundary of Qaqun village. From here it runs along the railway line some distance to the east of it to a point just east of the Tulkarm railway station. Thence the boundary follows a line half-way between the railway and the Tulkarm-Qalqiliya-Jaljuliya and Ras El-Ein road to a point just east of Ras El-Ein station, whence it proceeds along the railway some distance to the east of it to the point on the railway line south of the junction of the Haifa-Lydda and Beit Nabala lines, whence it proceeds along the southern border of Lydda airport to its south-west corner, thence in a south-westerly direction to a point just west of the built-up area of Sarafand El ‘Amar, whence it turns south, passing just to the west of the built-up area of Abu El-Fadil to the north-east corner of the lands of Beer Ya’aqov. (The boundary line should be so demarcated as to allow direct access from the Arab State to the airport.) Thence the boundary line follows the western and southern boundaries of Ramle village, to the north-east corner of El Na’ana village, thence in a straight line to the southernmost point of El Barriya, along the eastern boundary of that village and the southern boundary of ‘Innaba village. Thence it turns north to follow the southern side of the Jaffa-Jerusalem road until El-Qubab, whence it follows the road to the boundary of Abu-Shusha. It runs along the eastern boundaries of Abu Shusha, Seidun, Hulda to the southernmost point of Hulda, thence westwards in a straight line to the north-eastern corner of Umm Kalkha, thence following the northern boundaries of Umm Kalkha, Qazaza and the northern and western boundaries of Mukhezin to the Gaza District boundary and thence runs across the village lands of El-Mismiya El-Kabira, and Yasur to the southern point of intersection, which is midway between the built-up areas of Yasur and Batani Sharqi.
From the southern point of intersection the boundary lines run north-westwards between the villages of Gan Yavne and Barqa to the sea at a point half way between Nabi Yunis and Minat El-Qila, and south-eastwards to a point west of Qastina, whence it turns in a south-westerly direction, passing to the east of the built-up areas of Es Sawafir Esh Sharqiya and ‘Ibdis. From the south-east corner of ‘Ibdis village it runs to a point southwest of the built-up area of Beit ‘Affa, crossing the Hebron-El-Majdal road just to the west of the built-up area of ‘Iraq Suweidan. Thence it proceeds southward along the western village boundary of El-Faluja to the Beersheba Sub-District boundary. It then runs across the tribal lands of ‘Arab El-Jubarat to a point on the boundary between the Sub-Districts of Beersheba and Hebron north of Kh. Khuweilifa, whence it proceeds in a south-westerly direction to a point on the Beersheba-Gaza main road two kilometres to the north-west of the town. It then turns south-eastwards to reach Wadi Sab’ at a point situated one kilometer to the west of it. From here it turns north-eastwards and proceeds along Wadi Sab’ and along the Beersheba-Hebron road for a distance of one kilometer, whence it turns eastwards and runs in a straight line to Kh. Kuseifa to join the Beersheba-Hebron Sub-District boundary. It then follows the Beersheba-Hebron boundary eastwards to a point north of Ras Ez-Zuweira, only departing from it so as to cut across the base of the indentation between vertical grid lines 150 and 160.
About five kilometres north-east of Ras Ez-Zuweira it turns north, excluding from the Arab State a strip along the coast of the Dead Sea not more than seven kilometres in depth, as far as ‘Ein Geddi, whence it turns due east to join the Transjordan frontier in the Dead Sea.
The northern boundary of the Arab section of the coastal plain runs from a point between Minat El-Qila and Nabi Yunis, passing between the built-up areas of Gan Yavne and Barqa to the point of intersection. From here it turns south-westwards, running across the lands of Batani Sharqi, along the eastern boundary of the lands of Beit Daras and across the lands of Julis, leaving the built-up areas of Batani Sharqi and Julis to the westwards, as far as the north-west corner of the lands of Beit-Tima. Thence it runs east of El-Jiya across the village lands of El-Barbara along the eastern boundaries of the villages of Beit Jirja, Deir Suneid and Dimra. From the south-east corner of Dimra the boundary passes across the lands of Beit Hanun, leaving the Jewish lands of Nir-Am to the eastwards. From the south-east corner of Beit Hanun the line runs south-west to a point south of the parallel grid line 100, then turns north-west for two kilometres, turning again in a southwesterly direction and continuing in an almost straight line to the north-west corner of the village lands of Kirbet Ikhza’a. From there it follows the boundary line of this village to its southernmost point. It then runs in a southerly direction along the vertical grid line 90 to its junction with the horizontal grid line 70. It then turns south-eastwards to Kh. El-Ruheiba and then proceeds in a southerly direction to a point known as El-Baha, beyond which it crosses the Beersheba-EI ‘Auja main road to the west of Kh. El-Mushrifa. From there it joins Wadi El-Zaiyatin just to the west of El-Subeita. From there it turns to the north-east and then to the south-east following this Wadi and passes to the east of ‘Abda to join Wadi Nafkh. It then bulges to the south-west along Wadi Nafkh, Wadi ‘Ajrim and Wadi Lassan to the point where Wadi Lassan crosses the Egyptian frontier.
The area of the Arab enclave of Jaffa consists of that part of the town-planning area of Jaffa which lies to the west of the Jewish quarters lying south of Tel-Aviv, to the west of the continuation of Herzl street up to its junction with the Jaffa-Jerusalem road, to the south-west of the section of the Jaffa-Jerusalem road lying south-east of that junction, to the west of Miqve Yisrael lands, to the northwest of Holon local council area, to the north of the line linking up the north-west corner of Holon with the northeast corner of Bat Yam local council area and to the north of Bat Yam local council area. The question of Karton quarter will be decided by the Boundary Commission, bearing in mind among other considerations the desirability of including the smallest possible number of its Arab inhabitants and the largest possible number of its Jewish inhabitants in the Jewish State.
B. THE JEWISH STATE
The north-eastern sector of the Jewish State (Eastern Galilee) is bounded on the north and west by the Lebanese frontier and on the east by the frontiers of Syria and Trans-jordan. It includes the whole of the Huleh Basin, Lake Tiberias, the whole of the Beisan Sub-District, the boundary line being extended to the crest of the Gilboa mountains and the Wadi Malih. From there the Jewish State extends north-west, following the boundary described in respect of the Arab State. The Jewish section of the coastal plain extends from a point between Minat El-Qila and Nabi Yunis in the Gaza Sub-District and includes the towns of Haifa and Tel-Aviv, leaving Jaffa as an enclave of the Arab State. The eastern frontier of the Jewish State follows the boundary described in respect of the Arab State.
The Beersheba area comprises the whole of the Beersheba Sub-District, including the Negeb and the eastern part of the Gaza Sub-District, but excluding the town of Beersheba and those areas described in respect of the Arab State. It includes also a strip of land along the Dead Sea stretching from the Beersheba-Hebron Sub-District boundary line to ‘Ein Geddi, as described in respect of the Arab State.
C. THE CITY OF JERUSALEM
The boundaries of the City of Jerusalem are as defined in the recommendations on the City of Jerusalem. (See Part III, section B, below).
Part III. – City of Jerusalem(5)
A. SPECIAL REGIME
The City of Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus separatum under a special international regime and shall be administered by the United Nations. The Trusteeship Council shall be designated to discharge the responsibilities of the Administering Authority on behalf of the United Nations.
B. BOUNDARIES OF THE CITY
The City of Jerusalem shall include the present municipality of Jerusalem plus the surrounding villages and towns, the most eastern of which shall be Abu Dis; the most southern, Bethlehem; the most western, ‘Ein Karim (including also the built-up area of Motsa); and the most northern Shu’fat, as indicated on the attached sketch-map (annex B).
C. STATUTE OF THE CITY
The Trusteeship Council shall, within five months of the approval of the present plan, elaborate and approve a detailed statute of the City which shall contain, inter alia, the substance of the following provisions:
Government machinery; special objectives. The Administering Authority in discharging its administrative obligations shall pursue the following special objectives:
To protect and to preserve the unique spiritual and religious interests located in the city of the three great monotheistic faiths throughout the world, Christian, Jewish and Moslem; to this end to ensure that order and peace, and especially religious peace, reign in Jerusalem;
To foster cooperation among all the inhabitants of the city in their own interests as well as in order to encourage and support the peaceful development of the mutual relations between the two Palestinian peoples throughout the Holy Land; to promote the security, well-being and any constructive measures of development of the residents having regard to the special circumstances and customs of the various peoples and communities.
Governor and Administrative staff. A Governor of the City of Jerusalem shall be appointed by the Trusteeship Council and shall be responsible to it. He shall be selected on the basis of special qualifications and without regard to nationality. He shall not, however, be a citizen of either State in Palestine. The Governor shall represent the United Nations in the City and shall exercise on their behalf all powers of administration, including the conduct of external affairs. He shall be assisted by an administrative staff classed as international officers in the meaning of Article 100 of the Charter and chosen whenever practicable from the residents of the city and of the rest of Palestine on a non-discriminatory basis. A detailed plan for the organization of the administration of the city shall be submitted by the Governor to the Trusteeship Council and duly approved by it.
3. Local autonomy
The existing local autonomous units in the territory of the city (villages, townships and municipalities) shall enjoy wide powers of local government and administration.
The Governor shall study and submit for the consideration and decision of the Trusteeship Council a plan for the establishment of special town units consisting, respectively, of the Jewish and Arab sections of new Jerusalem. The new town units shall continue to form part the present municipality of Jerusalem.
The City of Jerusalem shall be demilitarized; neutrality shall be declared and preserved, and no para-military formations, exercises or activities shall be permitted within its borders.
Should the administration of the City of Jerusalem be seriously obstructed or prevented by the non-cooperation or interference of one or more sections of the population the Governor shall have authority to take such measures as may be necessary to restore the effective functioning of administration.
To assist in the maintenance of internal law and order, especially for the protection of the Holy Places and religious buildings and sites in the city, the Governor shall organize a special police force of adequate strength, the members of which shall be recruited outside of Palestine. The Governor shall be empowered to direct such budgetary provision as may be necessary for the maintenance of this force.
Legislative Organization. A Legislative Council, elected by adult residents of the city irrespective of nationality on the basis of universal and secret suffrage and proportional representation, shall have powers of legislation and taxation. No legislative measures shall, however, conflict or interfere with the provisions which will be set forth in the Statute of the City, nor shall any law, regulation, or official action prevail over them. The Statute shall grant to the Governor a right of vetoing bills inconsistent with the provisions referred to in the preceding sentence. It shall also empower him to promulgate temporary ordinances in case the Council fails to adopt in time a bill deemed essential to the normal functioning of the administration.
Administration of Justice. The Statute shall provide for the establishment of an independent judiciary system, including a court of appeal. All the inhabitants of the city shall be subject to it.
Economic Union and Economic Regime. The City of Jerusalem shall be included in the Economic Union of Palestine and be bound by all stipulations of the undertaking and of any treaties issued therefrom, as well as by the decisions of the Joint Economic Board. The headquarters of the Economic Board shall be established in the territory City. The Statute shall provide for the regulation of economic matters not falling within the regime of the Economic Union, on the basis of equal treatment and non-discrimination for all members of thc United Nations and their nationals.
Freedom of Transit and Visit: Control of residents. Subject to considerations of security, and of economic welfare as determined by the Governor under the directions of the Trusteeship Council, freedom of entry into, and residence within the borders of the City shall be guaranteed for the residents or citizens of the Arab and Jewish States. Immigration into, and residence within, the borders of the city for nationals of other States shall be controlled by the Governor under the directions of the Trusteeship Council.
Relations with Arab and Jewish States. Representatives of the Arab and Jewish States shall be accredited to the Governor of the City and charged with the protection of the interests of their States and nationals in connection with the international administration of thc City.
Official languages. Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages of the city. This will not preclude the adoption of one or more additional working languages, as may be required.
Citizenship. All the residents shall become ipso facto citizens of the City of Jerusalem unless they opt for citizenship of the State of which they have been citizens or, if Arabs or Jews, have filed notice of intention to become citizens of the Arab or Jewish State respectively, according to Part 1, section B, paragraph 9, of this Plan. The Trusteeship Council shall make arrangements for consular protection of the citizens of the City outside its territory.
Freedoms of citizens
Subject only to the requirements of public order and morals, the inhabitants of the City shall be ensured the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of conscience, religion and worship, language, education, speech and press, assembly and association, and petition.
No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants on the grounds of race, religion, language or sex.
All persons within the City shall be entitled to equal protection of the laws.
The family law and personal status of the various persons and communities and their religious interests, including endowments, shall be respected.
Except as may be required for the maintenance of public order and good government, no measure shall be taken to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of religious or charitable bodies of all faiths or to discriminate against any representative or member of these bodies on the ground of his religion or nationality.
The City shall ensure adequate primary and secondary education for the Arab and Jewish communities respectively, in their own languages and in accordance with their cultural traditions. The right of each community to maintain its own schools for the education of its own members in its own language, while conforming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the City may impose, shall not be denied or impaired. Foreign educational establishments shall continue their activity on the basis of their existing rights.
No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any inhabitant of the City of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the Press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.
Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall not be denied or impaired.
Free access to the Holy Places and religious buildings or sites and the free exercise of worship shall be secured in conformity with existing rights and subject to the requirements of public order and decorum.
Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall be preserved. No act shall be permitted which may in any way impair their sacred character. If at any time it appears to the Governor that any particular Holy Place, religious building or site is in need of urgent repair, the Governor may call upon the community or communities concerned to carry out such repair. The Governor may carry it out himself at the expense of the community or communities concerned if no action is taken within a reasonable time.
No taxation shall be levied in respect of any Holy Place, religious building or site which was exempt from taxation on the date of the creation of the City. No change in the incidence of such taxation shall be made which would either discriminate between the owners or occupiers of Holy Places, religious buildings or sites or would place such owners or occupiers in a position less favourable in relation to the general incidence of taxation than existed at the time of the adoption of the Assembly’s recommendations.
Special powers of the Governor in respect of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites in the City and in any part of Palestine.
The protection of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites located in the City of Jerusalem shall be a special concern of the Governor.
With relation to such places, buildings and sites in Palestine outside the city, the Governor shall determine, on the ground of powers granted to him by the Constitution of both States, whether the provisions of the Constitution of the Arab and Jewish States in Palestine dealing therewith and the religious rights appertaining thereto are being properly applied and respected.
The Governor shall also be empowered to make decisions on the basis of existing rights in cases of disputes which may arise between the different religious communities or the rites of a religious community in respect of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites in any part of Palestine. In this task he may be assisted by a consultative council of representatives of different denominations acting in an advisory capacity.
D. DURATION OF THE SPECIAL REGIME
The Statute elaborated by the Trusteeship Council the aforementioned principles shall come into force not later than 1 October 1948. It shall remain in force in the first instance for a period of ten years, unless the Trusteeship Council finds it necessary to undertake a re-examination of these provisions at an earlier date. After the expiration of this period the whole scheme shall be subject to examination by the Trusteeship Council in the light of experience acquired with its functioning. The residents the City shall be then free to express by means of a referendum their wishes as to possible modifications of regime of the City.
Part IV. Capitulations
States whose nationals have in the past enjoyed in Palestine the privileges and immunities of foreigners, including the benefits of consular jurisdiction and protection, as formerly enjoyed by capitulation or usage in the Ottoman Empire, are invited to renounce any right pertaining to them to the re-establishment of such privileges and immunities in the proposed Arab and Jewish States and the City of Jerusalem.
Adopted at the 128th plenary meeting:
In favour: 33
Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian S.S.R., Canada, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, Liberia, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Sweden, Ukrainian S.S.R., Union of South Africa, U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Uruguay, Venezuela.
Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen.
Argentina, Chile, China, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Mexico, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia.
(1) See Official Records of the General Assembly, Second Session Supplement No. 11,Volumes l-lV. * At its hundred and twenty-eighth plenary meeting on 29 November 1947 the General Assembly, in accordance with the terms of the above resolution, elected the following members of the United Nations Commission on Palestine: Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Panama, and Philippines.
(2) This resolution was adopted without reference to a Committee.
(3) The following stipulation shall be added to the declaration concerning the Jewish State: “In the Jewish State adequate facilities shall be given to Arabic-speaking citizens for the use of their language, either orally or in writing, in the legislature, before the Courts and in the administration.”
(4) In the declaration concerning the Arab State, the words “by an Arab in the Jewish State” should be replaced by the words “by a Jew in the Arab State.”
(5) On the question of the internationalization of Jerusalem, see also General Assembly resolutions 185 (S-2) of 26 April 1948; 187 (S-2) of 6 May 1948, 303 (lV) of 9 December 1949, and resolutions of the Trusteeship Council (Section IV).
July 23, 1968: An Israeli El Al flight en route from Rome to Tel Aviv, Israel with a crew of ten and thirty-eight passengers, was hijacked by four Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Islamic terrorists and forced to land in Algiers, Algeria – an OPEC, Marxist Muslim fiefdom. August 10, 1968: While it was relatively meaningless by itself, it was part of a bigger campaign. In Turkey today, two firebombs were thrown into the USIS office in Izmir. The anti-American climate in Islamic Turkey would continue to fester and grow. August 10, 1968: Yasser Arafat’s al-Fatah detonated three grenades in Jerusalem’s Jewish section, injuring eight Israelis and two Americans. August 19, 1968: Yasser Arafat’s al-Fatahdetonated a bomb near the Parliament building in Jerusalem. No one was hurt. August 21, 1968: Al Fatah terrorists bombed the U.S. Consulate building in East Jerusalem demonstrating their hatred for Americans. September 4, 1968: Palestinian Muslims detonated three bombs in the Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv killing one Israeli and wounding 71 more. Attacking soft civilian targets was becoming a hallmark of Fatah terrorists. September 13, 1968: Syrian al-Sa’iqa terrorists attacked the Israeli police headquarters in Baniyas in the Golan Heights. The facility was destroyed and all five Jews who were inside were killed. October 26, 1968: In the Federal Republic of Germany, three prominent anti-Communist Croatians were assassinated in a Munich apartment. Throughout much of 1968, Communists in Croatia were attacking targets all across Europe. October 26, 1968: Armed with a revolver, a member of the Black Panthers, Raymond Johnson hijacked a National Airlines flight to Cuba. The Black Panther was arrested and held by Cuba. No one was injured and there were no prisoner exchanges or ransoms. October 26, 1968: Two Italians hijacked an Olympic Airways jet from Paris en route to Athens to publicize their opposition to the military junta in Greece. The terrorists brandished a pistol and a grenade. They gave the 130 passengers handbills telling them that they had just been punished for going to Greece. No one was injured and no prisoners were exchanged. November 22, 1968: Islamic terrorists in Israel used a large bomb to kill 12 Jews and wound 52 more in Jerusalem’s most crowed open-air market. December 26, 1968: Still basking in their July 23rd success, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine attacked another El Al aircraft in Athens, shooting and killing one passenger. In response, Israel destroyed 14 Lebanese planes in Beirut. The two Palestinian hijackers who perpetrated the attack were freed in September of 1970 as the result of a quad hijacking by the PFLP and subsequent prisoner exchange. December 29, 1968: Yasser Arafat’s al-Fatah claimed “credit” for shelling the Israeli town of Beisan in northeast Israel. December 31, 1968: In Israel, al-Fatah Islamic terrorists attacked the Jewish settlement of Kiryat Shmona in the upper Galilee. The rockets they deployed had been fired from Lebanon. It was the beginning of a foreboding trend. January 2, 1969: A lone Islamic terrorist hijacked an Olympic Airways flight that had departed from Crete en route to Athens. The plane was flown to Cairo, Egypt. February 3, 1969: Yasser Arafat, in the afterglow of the Time Magazine cover story on his violent and victorious defeat at the village of Al-Karameh, and flush with OPEC funding and jihadist recruits, was appointed Director of the Palestinian Liberation Organization in their meeting in Cairo, Egypt. The ugly face of Islamic terror had a new “Commander-in-Chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces.” The “Chairman of the PLO’s Political Department” was now Yasser Arafat. February 18, 1969: Palestinian Muslims attacked an Israeli El Al airliner in Zurich, Switzerland as it was preparing to take off en route to Tel Aviv. The cockpit of the airliner was machine-gunned by the four Islamic terrorists who belonged to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
The terrorists fired 200 bullets and lobbed incendiary grenades from their car as the plane taxied down the runway. February 25, 1969: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestinian “claimed credit” for detonating a bomb inside the British Consulate in Jerusalem. . March 1, 1969: In Germany, Islamic terrorists corrupted by the Muslim Brotherhood used a bomb to destroy an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 707 jet at the Frankfurt Airport. Several cleaning women were injured in the blast.
The Government of Ethiopia blamed the attack on the Syrian-Egyptian Movement for the Liberation of Eritrea. The Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front claimed credit for the bombing. March 6, 1969: Muslims belonging to the PFLP thought it would be a good idea to detonate a bomb in the Hebrew University cafeteria, so they did, mutilating and burning the bodies of 29 Jewish students. May 22, 1969: The attempted assassination of the first Israeli Prime Minister, Ben-Gurion, failed but the would-be killers were freed by Denmark. June 18, 1969: In Pakistan, three armed members of the Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front assaulted an Ethiopian airliner at the Karachi airport. The Boeing 707 was burned in the attack. The terrorists, all of whom were captured, told authorities that they carried out the attack to dramatize their opposition to Ethiopian rule in Eritrea. Since the Islamic Pakistani government was sympathetic to their cause the three men were jailed for less than one year. July 17, 1969: In India, a bomb was detonated inside of a USIS reading room in the American Consulate in Calcutta, burning one employee. July 18, 1969: In London, England, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine terrorists fire-bombed a department store owned by Jewish citizens of the U.K.. The PFLP claimed responsibility for the bombing and warned that there would be more bomb attacks on Jewish-owned establishments in London and in the United States.
PFLP leader George Habbash said, “We shall expand our operations everywhere, in all parts of the world. The enemy camp includes not only Israel but also the Zionist movement, world imperialism led by the United States.” As a Muslim Marxist, Habbash had to please his Islamic and Communist financiers. Terrorism is, after all, expensive. July 19, 1969: Islamic jihadists associated with the Sudan government firebombed a United States Information Services library in Khartoum. The fundamentalist Islamic regime in control of the Sudan would soon unleash the most deadly genocide in modern history, killing 2.7 million African Animists and Christians. July 22, 1969: Muslims in the Philippines threw hand grenades into a USIS library in the American Consulate building in Manila, killing one Filipino. They did this because Muslims are hostile to the truth. Honest, open, and informed discussion is the one thing that is lethal to their religion – and thus to the terror Islam inspires. August 17, 1969: In London, England, PFLP Islamic terrorists planted several bombs inside the Marks and Spencers Department Store. August 18, 1969: Six Islamic terrorists hijacked an Egyptian Misrair Anatov-24 flying from Cairo to the tourist destination of Aswan on the Nile River. The plane was forced to land in Jidda, Saudi Arabia. August 18, 1969: The Israel Touristy Office in Copenhagen, Denmark was bombed by Muslim militants. August 19, 1969: TWA flight 840 from Rome to Athens was hijacked to Syria, where President Assad was sympathetic to Islamic terrorism. The Palestinian terrorists destroyed the aircraft. August 29, 1969: In France, a TWA Boeing 707 flight from Paris was hijacked by two Palestinian Front for the Liberation of Palestine terrorists and forced to land in Damascus, Syria. The plane carried a crew of 12 and 101 passengers.
After the hijack the Islamic terrorists announced to the passengers that the PFLP had taken command of the flight, and they ordered the plane flown to Damascus. Immediately upon landing, the passengers managed to jump from the plane before a bomb went off, destroying the aircraft. Four passengers were injured.
The PFLP said the hijacking and destruction of the TWA jet, along with the hijacking of an El Al Israeli Airlines plane to Algeria in July l968, the attacks on El Al planes in Athens in December 1968 and in Zurich in February 1969, were all part of their plan to strike at “imperialist interests within and outside the Arab world.” Acknowledging their Muslim overlords, they also asserted that “the action was in reprisal for American assistance to Israel.”.
September 8, 1969: Arafat’s al-Fatah recruited two teenage boys and motivated the young Muslims to throw hand grenades into the El Al Airlines offices in Brussels, Belgium. Four people were wounded in the blast.
What’s interesting is that while the perpetrators admitted that they had conducted their mission on behalf of Fatah, yet the PFLP claimed credit for the attack. September 8, 1969: Two Islamic terrorists calling themselves “Palestinians,” bombed the Israeli Embassy in Bonn, Germany. The PFLP claimed credit. September 8, 1969: In the Hague, Netherlands, Muslim militants threw hand grenades into the Israeli Embassy. September 9, 1969: In Asmara, Ethiopia, the American Consul General Murray Jackson, was kidnapped along with a British businessman by Muslims corrupted in Cairo. After signing a document stating that he had been instructed in the terrorist’s objectives, and that he had not been mistreated, Mr. Jackson was released. September 12, 1969: In Jordan, a bomb went off on the porch of the Amman home of the U.S. assistant army attaché. September 13, 1969: Three armed members of the Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front hijacked an Ethiopian Airlines DC-6 with 66 passengers aboard. The flight, bound for Djibouti from Addis Ababa was forced by the Muslim militants to land at Aden, Southern Yemen. One of the hijackers, Muhammad Sayed, 18, was shot by an Ethiopian secret police official who had been a passenger on the flight. October 7, 1969: An undisclosed group of Argentinean terrorists bombed a number of American businesses for reasons they never disclosed. Although there were nine attacks, no one was injured. October 21, 1969: Marxist Muslim Muhammad Siad Barre assumed dictatorial power in a military coup d’etat following the assassination of Somalia’s second President, Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke. Barre nationalized the economy with the help of Soviet advisers and Cuban troops. His Supreme Ruling Council formulated political and legal institutions based on the Qur’an, Marx, Mao, Lenin, and Mussolini. Siad Barre explained: “The official ideology consists of three elements: my own conception of community, a form of socialism based on Marxist principles, and Islam.”. December 5, 1969: Four Muslim Militants were caught before they could attack an airliner in London. The subsequent plot on the 17th failed as a result. December 12, 1969: Islamic terrorists bombed the West Berlin office of Israeli El Al Airlines. No one was injured in the blast. December 12, 1969: Muslim militants associated with the Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front armed with pistols and explosives were killed by plainclothes security guards as they attempted to hijack an Ethiopian Airlines jet shortly after takeoff from Madrid on a flight to Addis Ababa.
In Damascus, Syria, the Eritrean Liberation Front admitted that the two slain men were members of their organization but claimed that they had not intended to hijack the airliner, merely to hand out leaflets. But on December 10, Spanish police had arrested a third ELF member at the Madrid airport for carrying explosives. December 20, 1969: In Islamic Turkey, a bomb was detonated outside the United States Information Services building in Ankara. December 21, 1969: Three Lebanese Muslims were caught as they tried to hijack a TWA plane in Athens. The flight was bound for Rome and then on to New York. The three Muslim militants, who used handguns and explosives, said that they were members of the PFLP, and that they had received orders to divert the airplane to Tunis where they were to evacuate the passengers and blow up the aircraft.
One of the hijackers confessed that he and his colleagues had planned to destroy the plane “to warn the Americans to stop providing air communications with Israel.” The three Islamic terrorists were freed after the hijacking of an Olympic Airways plane to Cairo on July 22, l970. December 29, 1969: Philippine terrorists attempted to assassinate U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew by bombing his car. No one claimed credit for the assault but these same tactics were deployed countless times by local Islamic groups such as the Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah Islamiyah, and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. January 1, 1970: In Turkey, an explosion occurred at the entrance of the U.S. Consulate in Istanbul. Islamic Turkey was becoming a dangerous place to be an American. January 9, 1970: In France, a TWA 707 airliner en route from Paris to Rome with just 20 passengers and crew aboard was hijacked to Beirut by a lone French terrorist. He said that he wanted to spite Americans and Israelis for their aggression in the Middle East. Considered a hero by Muslims, when the hijacker was taken into custody in Lebanon he was only sentenced to nine months in jail essentially the time he served awaiting trial. He was promptly released and returned to France, where he was tried for illegal possession of weapons and sentenced to eight months in prison, once again, the length of the trial process.
The Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine thought their criminal act was a good thing, so they claimed responsibility for the murder and mutilations. However, since the word has a problem understanding the benefits of being judgmental, and fails to appreciate the concept of responsibility, the murdering Muslim terrorists were set free after the September 6, 1970 hijacking of one Swiss and two U.S. airliners. January 11, 1970: In Ethiopia, Islamic jihadists shot and killed a U.S. soldier. The Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement was responsible for the shooting the American.
The Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement was composed of Islamic terrorists who are financed, trained, and armed by the fundamentalist Islamic government in neighboring Sudan. The terrorist club sought to depose the current secular government in Eritrea and replace it with an Islamic theocracy based upon Sharia Law. January 21, 1970: In the Philippines, a car bomb exploded behind the Joint U.S. Military Assistance Group headquarters in Manila. Three support staff were injured. February 10, 1970: In Germany today, three Islamic terrorists killed an Israeli citizen and wounded 11 other Jewish passengers in a grenade attack on a bus at the Munich airport. The militants deployed guns and grenades in their assault on the El Al airport shuttle. The carnage was minimized because the Israeli pilots wrestled the weapons away from the Islamic terrorists. February 17, 1970: The Germans foiled a PFLP hijacking of an El Al aircraft. However, their temporary success only served to encourage terrorism because the German government foolishly freed the kidnappers two months later. February 21, 1970: A Swiss Air flight 330 from Zurich bound for Tel Aviv was bombed in mid-air nine minutes after takeoff by the PFLP General Command, a PFLP splinter group. Forty-seven innocent souls lost their lives to Islam, 15 of whom were Israelis. The bomb, placed in the cargo hold, was triggered by a change in atmospheric pressure. While the crew attempted to turn the plane back to the airport, smoke in the cockpit and the loss of electrical power thwarted their efforts,. February 21, 1970: On the same day that the PFLP-General Command destroyed a Swiss aircraft, killing everyone aboard, the main branch of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine exploded a bomb aboard an Austrian Airlines Caravelle flight from Frankfurt, Germany to Vienna, Austria. Fortunately, the damage was not catastrophic and the plane returned to Frankfurt safely with its 33 passengers.
The bomb was detonated twenty minutes after takeoff by an altimeter reading of fourteen thousand feet. March 1, 1970: In Italy, a bomb was found in the luggage of an Islamic terrorist aboard an Ethiopian airliner in Rome. The device had been placed by members of the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement. March 4, 1970: Two hours after a violent anti-American demonstration in the Philippines, a bomb rocked the embassy area and damaged a passing tanker truck carrying gasoline. March 14, 1970: A United Arab Airlines Antonov 24 flight flying from Athens to Cairo via Alexandria was four minutes out of its stopover when a bomb exploded in the landing gear well of the rear of the left engine, causing extensive damage to the undercarriage and injuring two of the ten passengers. March 20, 1970: In Ethiopia, five members of a National Geographic film crew, including an American producer, were taken hostage by members of the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement. They held the five hostages for 17 days. March 28, 1970: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) fired seven rockets into the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon and into the JFK Library, also in Beirut. The PFLP later said that the attack was in retaliation for “plans of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut to foment religious strife and create civil massacres in Lebanon aimed at paralyzing the Palestine resistance movement.” September 11, 1970: In India, a fifth jetliner, a BOAC VC-10, from Bombay to Beirut carrying 150 passengers, was hijacked by the PFLP sympathizer. The plane was also flown to Zarqa, Jordan. The passengers were held hostage pending the release of Miss Khaled from Briton and six other sub-human species. Once they were freed, the plane was blown up. No Islamic country has ever built an airplane, but their citizens became quite apt at destroying them. September 16, 1970: In what was justified as retaliation for the plane hijackings the week before, but was actually a response to the three assassination attempts on the Jordanian King Hussein’s life, the Islamic nation’s Army attacked Palestinian communities within the kingdom. Since most Jordanian Arabs (70% of the total population) were related to those who call themselves “Palestinians,” and since the ruling monarchy wasn’t among them, this was a preemptive strike designed to keep the majority population subservient to the Hashemite minority. The armed assault on Palestinian refugee camps and communities would continue through July of 1971. Late September, 1970: In Jordan, the terrorist organization known as Black_September was formed. An outgrowth of Arafat’s Fatah, the Arab League’s PLO, and Egypt’s Fedayeen, they claimed to be descendants of Hasan’s Hashshashin/Assassins of Persian and Crusade infamy. February 2, 1971: In India, two armed Kashmiri Muslims hijacked an Indian Airlines plane to Pakistan. They demanded that the Indian government release 36 convicted Islamic terrorists held in Kashmir jails. When the government rejected their demands, they blew up the plane. February 10, 1971: In Sweden, two Croatian Muslims seized control of the Yugoslav consulate in Gothenburg in an unsuccessful attempt to ransom its occupants in exchange for convicted terrorists held in Yugoslav jails. The Yugoslav government refused to meet their demands, and the terrorists surrendered the next day to the Swedish authorities. They were tried and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. But on September 16, 1972, they were released and flown to Madrid after three Croatians hijacked a Scandinavian airliner and demanded their freedom, along with the release of five Croatians involved in the assassination of the Yugoslav ambassador on April 7, 1971. April 8, 1971: In Sweden, Croatian terrorists assassinated the Yugoslav ambassador and wounded two Yugoslav diplomats in Stockholm. These murdering jihadists were released from jail when three Croatians militants hijacked a Scandinavian airliner on September 16, 1972, and demanded their freedom. May 29, 1971: In their second attack since this timeline began, Basque nationalists attempted to kidnap Henri Wolimer, the French Consul in San Sebastian. He resisted and escaped. There were no injuries in either mission. June 4, 1971: PFLP terrorists carried out an assault on the Liberian-registered oil tanker Coral Sea. Using a speedboat, the jihadists fired 10 bazooka shells at the tanker, causing some damage but no casualties. The attack occurred in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb at the entrance to the Red Sea. It was intended to deter tankers from using the Israeli port of Eilat. August 24, 1971: In Madrid, Spain, a bomb placed by Al Fatah’s Black_September Organization exploded in a Boeing 707 owned by the Royal Jordanian Airline. The aircraft was parked at the Barajas Airport. September 26, 1971: In Yemen, three bombs exploded at a U.S. Consular officer’s home. The bombing was believed to be part of an Islamic terrorist campaign against the government. December 15, 1971: In London, the Black_September Organization attempted to assassinate Zaid Rifai, the Jordanian Ambassador. December 16, 1971: Three people were injured by parcel bombs sent by the Black_September Organization to the Jordanian mission to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
Muslims first genocide in SudanDecember, 1971: The first Islamic war in the Sudan was nearing resolution. However, Arab Muslims trying to Sharia Law in all of the Sudan had already killed 500,000 Africans, 80% of them being unarmed civilians, leaving a million more homeless.
British bungling had set the stage for the slaughter in Sudan. As part of the UK’s strategy in the Middle East, the Arab Muslim north and the African animist and Christian south were merged into a single administrative protectorate. In 1953 Egypt and the UK granted “independence” to the Sudan because it was becoming impossible to control under these circumstances. Muslims don’t share power with anyone. When this happened, the Arab Muslims in the north immediately recanted the agreements they had made with the African south, and began attacking them. A succession of Islamic dominated administrations did nothing to stop the terror. It was only when a fundamentalist Muslim vs. Muslim Marxist rift in the north emerged, that the genocide temporarily lost momentum. In 1971, Joseph Lagu became the first to organize Africans in the south, providing a voice for the oppressed. May 11, 1972: A series of bombs placed by the Baader-Meinhof Gang exploded at the Fifth U.S. Army Corps headquarters in West Germany, killing Colonel Paul Bloomquist and wounding 13 others.
The Baader-Meinhof Group was a violent communist association that acted in partnership with the PFLP. They emerged from the Federal Republic of Germany in the late 1960s. On April 2, 1968, Andreas Baader, the group’s founder, and his girlfriend Gudrun Ensslin, bombed a Frankfurt department store. The well-known German journalist Ulrike Meinhof, helped Baader flee custody. Following the prison break, Meinhof and Baader enrolled in a terrorist training camp run by the Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and became infamous.
Returning from the Islamic terrorist training camp, Baader, Meinhof, and Ensslin engaged in a violent spree of bombings, abductions, and firearm attacks. They professed a hazy mix of Marxism, Maoism, and Muslim beliefs as the terrorized West Germany. May 24, 1972: In Zimbabwe, a South African Airways Boeing 727 flying from Salisbury to Johannesburg with 66 passengers and crew on board was hijacked by two Lebanese Muslim terrorists who threatened to blow up the aircraft. May 31, 1972: After receiving the $5 million ransom from the German government, the PLO/PFLP/BSO financed and dispatched members of the Japanese Red Army to attack Lod Airport in Tel Aviv. They bombed the terminal and used automatic weapons to gun down and kill 27 people milling in the crowd, wounding 75 to 80 more. Yes, Islam has always found soulmates in Communist, Socialist, and Fascist circles. June 10, 1972: The West German embassy in Dublin, Ireland was damaged by a bomb that had been placed by supporters of the Baader-Meinhof Gang of Muslim-trained Marxists. July 18, 1972: An attaché case containing fifteen pounds of explosives was discovered in the USIS Cultural Center in Manila. The device was set to explode at 1 AM Saturday. The guard did not check the case until Monday morning, and the building was spared only because of the failure of the timing device. July 31, 1972: A group of hijackers, including George Edward Wright, George Brown, Melvin McNair, his wife Jean Allen McNair, and Joyce T. Burgess, who said they were Black Panther Party sympathizers, took over a Delta Air Lines jet over Florida and directed the plane to Algeria after collecting $1 million in ransom.
August 5, 1972: The PFLP/PLO/BSO attacked an oil refinery in Trieste, Italy. The damage they wrought in the ensuing fire in large oil storage tanks was considerable, estimated at over $7 million. The attack was justified because Germany and Austria allegedly supplied oil to Israel. Attack on the Munich Airport, February 10, 1970: Three terrorists attacked El Al passengers in a bus at the Munich Airport with guns and grenades. One passenger was killed and 11 were injured. All three terrorists were captured by airport police. The Action Organization for the Liberation of Palestine and the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility for the attack. Munich Olympic Massacre, September 5, 1972: Eight Palestinian “Black September” terrorists seized eleven Israeli athletes in the Olympic Village in Munich, West Germany. In a bungled rescue attempt by West German authorities, nine of the hostages and five terrorists were killed. Ambassador to Sudan Assassinated March 2, 1973: U.S. Ambassador to Sudan Cleo A. Noel and other diplomats were assassinated at the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Khartoum by members of the Black September organization. Attack and Hijacking at the Rome Airport December 17, 1973: Five terrorists pulled weapons from their luggage in the terminal lounge at the Rome airport, killing two persons. They then attacked a Pan American 707 bound for Beirut and Tehran, destroying it with incendiary grenades and killing 29 persons, including 4 senior Moroccan officials and 14 American employees of ARAMCO. They then herded 5 Italian hostages into a Lufthansa airliner and killed an Italian customs agent as he tried to escape, after which they forced the pilot to fly to Beirut. After Lebanese authorities refused to let the plane land, it landed in Athens, where the terrorists demanded the release of 2 Arab terrorists. In order to make Greek authorities comply with their demands, the terrorists killed a hostage and threw his body onto the tarmac. The plane then flew to Damascus, where it stopped for two hours to obtain fuel and food. It then flew to Kuwait, where the terrorists released their hostages in return for passage to an unknown destination. The Palestine Liberation Organization disavowed the attack, and no group claimed responsibility for it. Ambassador to Afghanistan Assassinated, February 14, 1979: Four Afghans kidnapped U.S. Ambassador Adolph Dubs in Kabul and demanded the release of various “religious figures.” Dubs was killed, along with four alleged terrorists, when Afghan police stormed the hotel room where he was being held. Iran Hostage Crisis, November 4, 1979: After President Carter agreed to admit the Shah of Iran into the US, Iranian radicals seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and took 66 American diplomats hostage. Thirteen hostages were soon released, but the remaining 53 were held until their release on January 20, 1981. Grand Mosque Seizure, November 20, 1979: 200 Islamic terrorists seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, taking hundreds of pilgrims hostage. Saudi and French security forces retook the shrine after an intense battle in which some 250 people were killed and 600 wounded. Threats from Libya
When intelligence reports surfaced that Libyan leader Muammar el-Qaddafi had plans to assassinate American diplomats in Rome and Paris, President Reagan expelled all Libyan diplomats from the U.S. (May 6, 1981) and closed Libya’s diplomatic mission in Washington, D.C. Three months later, Reagan ordered U.S. Navy jets to shoot down Libyan fighters if they ventured inside what was known as the “line of death.” (This was the line created by Qaddafi to demarcate Libya’s territorial waters, which he said extended more than 100 miles off the country’s shoreline; the U.S. and other maritime nations recognized Libyan territorial waters as extending only 12 miles from shore.) As expected, the Libyan Air Force counter-attacked and Navy jets shot down two SU-22 warplanes about 60 miles off the Libyan coast.
Bombing of U.S. Embassy in Beirut, April 18, 1983: Sixty-three people, including the CIA’s Middle East director, were killed and 120 were injured in a 400-pound suicide truck-bomb attack on the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Bombing of Marine Barracks, Beirut, October 23, 1983 : Simultaneous suicide truck-bomb attacks were made on American and French compounds in Beirut, Lebanon. A 12,000-pound bomb destroyed the U.S. compound, killing 242 Americans, while 58 French troops were killed when a 400-pound device destroyed a French base. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait, Dec. 12, 1983 The American embassy in Kuwait was bombed in a series of attacks whose targets also included the French embassy, the control tower at the airport, the country’s main oil refinery, and a residential area for employees of the American corporation Raytheon. Six people were killed, including a suicide truck bomber, and more than 80 others were injured. The suspects were thought to be members of Al Dawa, or “The Call,” an Iranian-backed group and one of the principal Shiite groups operating against Saddam Hussein in Iraq.
Kidnapping of Embassy Official, March 16, 1984: The Islamic Jihad kidnapped and later murdered Political Officer William Buckley in Beirut, Lebanon. Other U.S. citizens not connected to the U.S. government were seized over a succeeding two-year period. TWA Hijacking, June 14, 1985: A Trans-World Airlines flight was hijacked en route to Rome from Athens by two Lebanese Hizballah terrorists and forced to fly to Beirut. The eight crew members and 145 passengers were held for seventeen days, during which one American hostage, a U.S. Navy sailor, was murdered. After being flown twice to Algiers, the aircraft was returned to Beirut after Israel released 435 Lebanese and Palestinian prisoners. Air India Bombing, June 23, 1985: A bomb destroyed an Air India Boeing 747 over the Atlantic, killing all 329 people aboard. Both Sikh and Kashmiri terrorists were blamed for the attack. Two cargo handlers were
killed at Tokyo airport, Japan, when another Sikh bomb exploded in an Air Canada aircraft en route to India. Bombing in Copenhagen : July 22, 1985 Two near-simultaneous bombs in Copenhagen, at the Jewish synagogue and at the offices of Northwest Orient, explode, killing one and injuring 32. The bombers are interrupted while placing a third, more powerful, bomb, which they later dispose of in the city’s harbour. The bombs are later linked to Islamic Jihad.
Soviet Diplomats Kidnapped : September 30, 1985: In Beirut, Lebanon, Sunni terrorists kidnapped four Soviet diplomats. One was killed but three were later released. Achille Lauro Hijacking, October 7, 1985: Four Palestinian Liberation Front terrorists seized the Italian cruise liner in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, taking more than 700 hostages. One U.S. passenger was murdered before the Egyptian government offered the terrorists safe haven in return for the hostages freedom. Egyptian Airliner Hijacking November 23, 1985: An EgyptAir airplane bound from Athens to Malta and carrying several U.S. citizens was hijacked by the Abu Nidal Group. Airport Attacks in Rome and Vienna December 27, 1985: Four gunmen belonging to the Abu Nidal Organization attacked the El Al and Trans World Airlines ticket counters at Rome’s Leonardo da Vinci Airport with grenades and automatic rifles. Thirteen persons were killed and 75 were wounded before Italian police and Israeli security guards killed three of the gunmen and captured the fourth. Three more Abu Nidal gunmen attacked the El Al ticket counter at Vienna’s Schwechat Airport, killing three persons and wounding 30. Austrian police killed one of the gunmen and captured the others. Aircraft Bombing in Greece, March 30, 1986: A Palestinian splinter group detonated a bomb as TWA Flight 840 approached Athens airport, killing four U.S. citizens. Berlin Discoteque Bombing, April 5, 1986: Two U.S. soldiers were killed and 79 American servicemen were injured in a Libyan bomb attack on a nightclub in West Berlin, West Germany. In retaliation U.S. military jets bombed targets in and around Tripoli and Benghazi. Kidnapping of William Higgins February 17, 1988: U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel W. Higgins was kidnapped and murdered by the Iranian-backed Hizballah group while serving with the United Nations Truce Supervisory Organization (UNTSO) in southern Lebanon. Naples USO Attack, April 14, 1988: The Organization of Jihad Brigades exploded a car-bomb outside a USO Club in Naples, Italy, killing one U.S. sailor. Pan Am 103 Bombing, December 21, 1988: Pan American Airlines Flight 103 was blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, by a bomb believed to have been placed on the aircraft by Libyan terrorists in Frankfurt, West Germany. All 259 people on board were killed. Bombing of UTA Flight 772, September 19, 1989: A bomb explosion destroyed UTA Flight 772 over the Sahara Desert in southern Niger during a flight from Brazzaville to Paris. All 170 persons aboard were killed. Six Libyans were later found guilty in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment. Bombing of the Israeli Embassy in Argentina, March 17, 1992: Hizballah claimed responsibility for a blast that leveled the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, causing the deaths of 29 and wounding 242.
Hotel bombing in Somalia Dec. 29, 1992 In the first al-Qaida attack against U.S. forces, operatives bomb a hotel where U.S. troops — on their way to a humanitarian mission in Somalia — had been staying. Two Austrian tourists are killed. Almost simultaneously, another group of al-Qaida operatives are caught at Aden airport, Yemen, as they prepare to launch rockets at U.S. military planes. U.S. troops quickly leave Aden.
World Trade Center Bombing, February 26, 1993: The World Trade Center in New York City was badly damaged when a car bomb planted by Islamic terrorists exploded in an underground garage. The bomb left 6 people dead and 1,000 injured. The men carrying out the attack were followers of Umar Abd al-Rahman, an Egyptian cleric who preached in the New York City area. Attempted Assassination of President Bush by Iraqi Agent. April 14, 1993: The Iraqi intelligence service attempted to assassinate former U.S. President George Bush during a visit to Kuwait. In retaliation, the U.S. launched a cruise missile attack 2 months later on the Iraqi capital Baghdad. Kashmiri Hostage-taking, July 4, 1995: In India six foreigners, including two U.S. citizens, were taken hostage by Al-Faran, a Kashmiri separatist group. One non-U.S. hostage was later found beheaded. Jerusalem Bus Attack August 21, 1995: HAMAS claimed responsibility for the detonation of a bomb that killed 6 and injured over 100 persons, including several U.S. citizens. Saudi Military Installation Attack November 13, 1995: The Islamic Movement of Change planted a bomb in a Riyadh military compound that killed one U.S. citizen, several foreign national employees of the U.S. government, and over 40 others. Egyptian Embassy Attack November 19, 1995: A suicide bomber drove a vehicle into the Egyptian Embassy compound in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing at least 16 and injuring 60 persons. Three militant Islamic groups claimed responsibility. HAMAS Bus Attack February 26, 1996: In Jerusalem, a suicide bomber blew up a bus, killing 26 persons, including three U.S. citizens, and injuring some 80 persons, including three other US citizens. Dizengoff Center Bombing March 4, 1996: HAMAS and the Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ) both claimed responsibility for a bombing outside of Tel Aviv’s largest shopping mall that killed 20 persons and injured 75 others, including 2 U.S. citizens. West Bank Attack May 13, 1996: Arab gunmen opened fire on a bus and a group of Yeshiva students near the Bet El settlement, killing a dual U.S./Israeli citizen and wounding three Israelis. No one claimed responsibility for the attack, but HAMAS was suspected. Empire State Building Sniper Attack February 23, 1997: A Palestinian gunman opened fire on tourists at an observation deck atop the Empire State Building in New York City, killing a Danish national and wounding visitors from the United States, Argentina, Switzerland, and France before turning the gun on himself. A handwritten note carried by the gunman claimed this was a punishment attack against the “enemies of Palestine.” Israeli Shopping Mall Bombing September 4, 1997: Three suicide bombers of HAMAS detonated bombs in the Ben Yehuda shopping mall in Jerusalem, killing eight persons, including the bombers, and wounding nearly 200 others. A dual U.S./Israeli citizen was among the dead, and 7 U.S. citizens were wounded. Murder of U.S. Businessmen in Pakistan November 12, 1997: Two unidentified gunmen shot to death four U.S. auditors from Union Texas Petroleum Corporation and their Pakistani driver after they drove away from the Sheraton Hotel in Karachi. The Islami Inqilabi Council, or Islamic Revolutionary Council, claimed responsibility in a call to the U.S. Consulate in Karachi. In a letter to Pakistani newspapers, the Aimal Khufia Action Committee also claimed responsibility. Tourist Killings in Egypt November 17, 1997: Al-Gama’at al-Islamiyya (IG) gunmen shot and killed 58 tourists and four Egyptians and wounded 26 others at the Hatshepsut Temple in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor. Thirty-four Swiss, eight Japanese, five Germans, four Britons, one French, one Colombian, a dual Bulgarian/British citizen, and four unidentified persons were among the dead. Twelve Swiss, two Japanese, two Germans, one French, and nine Egyptians were among the wounded. Attack on U.S.S. Cole, October 12, 2000: In Aden, Yemen, a small dingy carrying explosives rammed the destroyer U.S.S. Cole, killing 17 sailors and injuring 39 others. Supporters of Usama Bin Laden were suspected. Bus Stop Bombing, April 22, 2001: A member of HAMAS detonated a bomb he was carrying near a bus stop in Kfar Siva, Israel, killing one person and injuring 60. Philippines Hostage Incident, May 27, 2001: Muslim Abu Sayyaf guerrillas seized 13 tourists and 3 staff members at a resort on Palawan Island and took their captives to Basilan Island. The captives included three U.S. citizens: Guellermo Sobero and missionaries Martin and Gracia Burnham. Philippine troops fought a series of battles with the guerrillas between June 1 and June 3 during which 9 hostages escaped and two were found dead. The guerrillas took additional hostages when they seized the hospital in the town of Lamitan. On June 12, Abu Sayyaf spokesman Abu Sabaya claimed that Sobero had been killed and beheaded; his body was found in October. The Burnhams remained in captivity until June 2002. Tel-Aviv Nightclub Bombing, June 1, 2001: HAMAS claimed responsibility for the suicide bombing of a popular Israeli nightclub that caused over 140 casualties. HAMAS Restaurant Bombing, August 9, 2001: A HAMAS-planted bomb detonated in a Jerusalem pizza restaurant, killing 15 people and wounding more than 90. The Israeli response included occupation of Orient House, the Palestine Liberation Organization’s political headquarters in East Jerusalem. Suicide Bombing in Israel, September 9, 2001: The first suicide bombing carried out by an Israeli Arab killed 3 persons in Nahariya. HAMAS claimed responsibility. Death of “the Lion of the Panjshir”, September 9, 2001: Two suicide bombers fatally wounded Ahmed Shah Massoud, a leader of Afghanistan’s Northern Alliance, which had opposed both the Soviet occupation and the post-Soviet Taliban government. The bombers posed as journalists and were apparently linked to al-Qaida. The Northern Alliance did not confirm Massoud’s death until September 15. Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Homeland, September 11, 2001: Two hijacked airliners crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center. Soon thereafter, the Pentagon was struck by a third hijacked plane. A fourth hijacked plane, suspected to be bound for a high-profile target in Washington, crashed into a field in southern Pennsylvania. The attacks killed 3,025 U.S. citizens and other nationals. President Bush and Cabinet officials indicated that Usama Bin Laden was the prime suspect and that they considered the United States in a state of war with international terrorism. In the aftermath of the attacks, the United States formed the Global Coalition Against Terrorism.
… and we know terrorism has not stopped…. it continues and we must be vigilant. We must not forget. We must not put our heads in the sand. We must demand that our elected officials stop playing politics. This isn’t a game. The common thread in all the attacks is that there is a deep seeded hatred for us.
Mi sono stancato di leggere e sentire deliri sulla necessità dell’utilizzo delle centrifughe atomiche per gli impianti civili. Una volta per tutte facciamo chiarezza.
La verità è ben diversa da come vengono illustrati i motivi delle necessità di alcuni stati di dotarsi di centrifughe per l’arricchimento dell’Uranio, nella realtà le cose stanno così :
la diatriba con l’Iran ha una ragione puramente tecnica (non ideologica, culturale, politica etc). Per arricchire l’Uranio ed ottenere combustibile nucleare per centrali elettriche esistono dei metodi molto piu’ semplici e meno costosi delle centrifughe. Il piu’ semplice è noto fin dal 1943 ed e’ l’arricchimento per diffusione termica in forma liquida. Successivamente si è studiato un’altro metodi parimenti economico ma più efficente, la diffusione in forma gassosa. Purtroppo con questi metodi non si riesce ad arrivare al grado di arricchimento per usi militari, con le centrifughe invece si. L’Iran dice di volere installare 50.000 centrifughe. 50.000? E che ci devono fare con tutto il petrolio che si ritrovano? Forse per questo progetto qui o per questo o per quest’altro?
Ogni cilindro è una centrifuga … e che saranno mai 50.000 centrifughe… cosa ne deduce una mente che non è ottenebrata dall’ideologia?
Ma ai sinistri questi tipi qui piacciono da morire! Che ci possiamo fare?
A noi hanno impedito di poter usufruire di energia a basso costo costringendoci ad essere succubi del gas russo e del petrolio mediorientale (Libia ed Iran in primis) , a loro invece tutto è permesso anche nel campo ecologico.