Più di una volta abbiamo sentito parlare di “mercenari” in Iraq, o in Afganistan. Bene, questi uomini stanno li per un lauto stipendio e per difendere gli interessi delle multinazionali. I nostri media, giornali e televisioni hanno sempre riportato con grande enfasi l’invio di questi “fantomatici mercenari”. E’ arrivato il momento di smascherarli : Qui e qui trovate le informazioni necessarie per la loro messa in accusa. Ovviamente sono polemico ma è bene sapere che l’organizzazione linkata è una ONG riconosciuta e finanziata dall’ONU. Purtroppo tra le loro fila non ci sono delle simone o dei gino strada o altre persone dichiaratamente schierate a sinistra e si sa quanto valore abbia questa appartenenza come effetto amplificatore. Ma cosa fanno questi “mercenari”? Proviamo a dare una spiegazione rapida ed esaudiente : rischiano la vita per sminare, bonificare dalle mine i territori sui quali è stata combattuta una guerra. Vi ricordo che nel mondo ci sono, stimate, ancora 100 milioni di mine (50 delle quali di costruzione sovietica o di paesi dell’allora patto di Varsavia o ex comunisti o ancora comunisti).
Volete sapere come si esegue una bonifica? Continuate a leggere allora. Intanto distinguiamo tra la bonifica operativa e quella umanitaria.
La bonifica operativa è quella che viene attuata in occasione di interventi militari. Tende a raggiungere risultati del 70% , 80 % , dove il restante 30-20 % rappresenta un rischio residuo accettabile in operazioni militari in quanto molto inferiore a quello rappresentato dal pericolo di essere colpiti da un proiettile vacante durante un conflitto a fuoco. Ben altra cosa è la bonifica umanitaria che deve raggiungere risultati molto vicini al 100% e che non può accettare alcun rischio residuo se non quello dell’evento casuale. In questo settore sono in corso moltissime attività di ricerca e sviluppo per arrivare a realizzare sistemi che consentono di ottenere i migliori risultati con il minor costo possibile e con la massima sicurezza . Un accenno và fatto alle tecnologie per il rilevamento e l’individuazione delle mine. Si tratta di un campo che ha avuto finora un ambito di applicazione meramente militare, ma che, grazie alla nuova sensibilità mondiale, e diventato di grandissimo interesse anche per la ricerca e la tecnologia civile e quindi per le operazioni di sminamento umanitario. L’interesse maggiore è orientato verso sistemi elettronici , che consentono di individuare con la massima precisione possibile le aree minate e le zone trappolate. Ottimi risultati sono giunti per es. dai radar gpr ad alta penetrazione, o georadar, capaci di analizzare il terreno a profondità variabile da pochi cm fino ad un paio di metri. Ci sono poi le camere ad infrarosso termico. Le mine hanno una temperatura diversa rispetto al suolo anche nell’ordine di uno o due gradi. Le camere più sensibili captano variazioni entro il decimo di grado e sono quindi ideali per rilevare le mine. Poi ci sono i radar sar che utilizzano il principio dei satelliti e hanno raggiunto un’altissima risoluzione (una precisione nell’identificazione del corpo estraneo entro i due o tre centimetri). Allo studio ci sono i cosiddetti “nasi artificialii”. Si tratta di sensori biochimici capaci di captare addirittura le singole particelle i materiale esplosivo contenuto nelle mine. L’utilizzo dei cani per fiutare l’esplosivo contenuto nelle mine e quindi segnalarne la localizzazione è molto importante, anche se risente dell’inquinamento del terreno e come o visto in Bosnia ed in Kosovo, dei limiti di resistenza di questi preziosi animali che possono essere utilizzati per un massimo di due o tre ore al giorno.
L’utilizzo dei mezzi meccanici è molto utile ed è anzi indispensabile specie nelle grandi superfici, ma da solo garantendo al massimo l’80%, non dà quella certezza di sicurezza che lo sminamento umanitario deve invece poter garantire. L’obiettivo, comunque , non è semplice da raggiungere, molti sono i parametri in gioco che possono condizionare e per taluni aspetti invalidare i risultati, ma non per questo non può essere affrontato e risolto con risultati apprezzabili, come dimostrano le attività di bonifica in corso in tutto il mondo, che sono portate avanti manualmente dagli specialisti del settore, sia civili delle organizzazioni non governative, che militari (e.o.d. dei vari eserciti) un lavoro lento, quello manuale, ma garante di risultati affidabili e non inferiori ad una probabilità di successo del 99,9 %. I sistemi meccanici ed elettronici sono ancora allo studio mentre esiste la specializzazione dell’uomo assicurata dalla professionalità maturata negli anni dagli specializzati militari, di cui l’Italia dispone in larga misura fra il personale dell’arma del genio, cresciuti tramandando una cultura specifica che trova origine nel periodo immediatamente successivo al secondo conflitto mondiale quando ufficiali e sottufficiali del genio bonificarono il territorio nazionale. Oggi, gli eredi di costoro sono gli specialisti dell’e.o.d. del genio militare che hanno operato in passato in Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Kuwait, Angola, Mozambico e che oggi operano in Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq e di nuovo in Afganistan. Nei programmi dello sminamento umanitario sono essenziali i seguenti parametri:
conoscenza del pericolo delle mine;
demarcazione delle aree minate e trappolate;
pronto soccorso e riabilitazione dei feriti ;
ricostruzione e sviluppo delle comunità che hanno avuto problemi con le mine;
Formazione di specialisti locali per mettere loro in condizione di affrontare autonomamente l’impegno della bonifica.
Lo sminamento a favore dei civili si concretizza attraverso quattro diverse forme di intervento: lo sminamento strutturale, lo sminamento di programma, lo sminamento di prossimità , e lo sminamento cosidetto ” paesano ” .
lo sminamento strutturale si occupa della bonifica delle principali infrastrutture . In particolare, le prime fasi dell’intervento sono finalizzate alla bonifica delle strade e zone aeroportuali , con l’impiego dei sistemi meccanici realizzati per la bonifica operativa.
lo sminamento di programma viene attuato nell’ambito di un programma di sviluppo. Lo scopo e quello di facilitare la realizzazione di altri interventi tecnici ( sanitari , agricoli , urbanistici , idraulici etc . ) bonificando le aree di interesse da tutte le mine , trappole esplosive ed ordigni bellici ancora attivi.
lo sminamento di prossimità orientato verso lo sviluppo di una bonifica a lungo termine. Ha lo scopo di restituire alla popolazione le condizioni essenziali per ritornare alla normalità . Il primo beneficiario di questo tipo di progetto è il gruppo comunitario a favore del quale si interviene e prevede la formazione di specialisti locali destinati alla condotta dei futuri programmi di bonifica. Lo sminamento di prossimità coinvolge attivamente la popolazione e le attività della bonifica operativa sono accompagnate da approfondite campagne di formazione sul problema delle mine .
lo sminamento cosi detto ” paesano ” finalizzato ad interventi locali, ma peculiarmente sviluppato per insegnare alla popolazione a convivere con le mine e le trappole esplosive difendendosi dalle stesse. Questo tipo di programma, generalmente , è sviluppato per aumentare il grado di sicurezza per le realtà locali, a premessa di interventi di bonifica su larga scala. Il più delle volte , gli attori principali sono ex militari o abitanti del luogo che vengono abilitati ad operare per azioni di sminamento su scala micro-locale. Questi programmi sono attualmente in parte ed in alcune località attuati da organizzazioni non governative, impiegando specialisti di maturata esperienza .
A premessa di ogni intervento è comunque essenziale disporre di mezzi idonei al rilevamento delle mine e adottare tecniche che garantiscono l’individuazione degli ordigni. Una delle possibili tecniche, quella più comunemente applicata da tutti gli esperti , è quella che vede il ricorso al sistema del prodding, , che consiste nel sondare il terreno mediante particolari aste rigide che consentono di individuare le mine interrate. Il prodding è efficace in quasi tutti i terreni e normalmente viene integrato dall’impiego di rilevatori di mine a funzionamento elettronico , non sempre affidabili in quanto molto condizionati dalle condizioni ambientali , dalle temperature estreme e dai terreni con presenze di elementi metallici Vediamo ora in particolare come si procede alla bonifica di un’area minata di piccole dimensioni con il sistema del prodding. Per effettuare la bonifica di un’area minata, bisogna applicare delle procedure che dipendono da:
grandezza dell’area da bonificare;
numero e tipo di mine presenti;
numero di sminatori disponibili.
Il nucleo di bonifica di base è costituito da :
operatore con apparato rilevatore.
Nella fase preparatoria, che precede l’inizio della bonifica, gli specialisti recuperano carte della zona e sviluppano una capillare operazione di intelligence, nell’intento di acquisire il massimo numero di informazioni sul campo minato e sul tipo di mine. Svolta l’attività informativa e ricognitiva che ha permesso di individuare sia l’andamento sia l’ampiezza dell’area minata ed eventualmente il tipo di mine, verrà redatto un progetto d’attuazione che prevede diverse fasi d’intervento:
segnalazione del campo minato tramite fettucce con scritte mine, organizzazione della zona di intervento per quanto concerne il sostegno logistico, il posto di sosta, l’assistenza sanitaria, eventuale centro di raccolta di mine e la dislocazione dei materiali esplosivi necessari alla bonifica.
realizzazione della bonifica di un corridoio largo un metro e lungo 44 metri sulla fronte anteriore dell’area minata.questo corridoio viene creato per permettere ai nuclei bonificatori di agire in una zona certamente pulita da ordigni.
una volta che il nucleo iniziale ha raggiunto i 24 metri di bonifica sul fronte anteriore, si potrà dare inizio alle operazioni di bonifica in profondità , perpendicolarmente alla fascia iniziale, da parte del 1° nucleo.
ogni qualvolta che il nucleo raggiunge la profondità di 20 metri potrà iniziare il lavoro il nucleo successivo e cosi via.
fase: quando il nucleo iniziale avrà terminato di bonificare i 44 metri del fronte del campo potrà essere inserito nei nuclei di lavoro .
ogni qualvolta che gli operatori rinverranno una mina questa sarà segnalata tramite un cappellozzo bianco e rosso. Il capo nucleo provvederà alla sua distruzione al termine della bonifica e, se ciò, non fosse possibile, procederà all’eventuale disattivazione cioè all’inserimento della sicurezza per quanto riguarda le mine antiuomo, ed eliminazione della parte attiva (disinnescamento ) per le anticarro..
al termine della bonifica della fascia di competenza ( 1 metro x 60 metri ) , il capo nucleo provvederà alla distruzione sul posto delle mine antiuomo con l’impiego dell’esplosivo, sempre che questo sia possibile. Per quanto riguarda le mine a/c bisogna effettuare il ribaltamento delle stesse mediante una fune con gancio per ovviare all’eventualità che siano provviste di congegni antirimozione. Effettuata questa operazione, la mina potrà essere disinnescata e quindi recuperata.
al termine delle operazioni viene redatto un rapporto di bonifica.
I mezzi impiegati per l’individuazione delle mine durante una bonifica sono :
gli apparati cercamine;
le aste di sondaggio;
telai guida per il sondaggio.
In casi particolari per condizioni di terreno o di densità di minamento, talvolta non è possibile applicare integralmente le norme per la bonifica descritta , questi casi sono i seguenti:
terreno con folta vegetazione;
ferrovie e gallerie ferroviarie;
terreni acquitrinosi o temporaneamente allagati,
terreni eccezionalmente compatti o gelati;
terreni coperti da neve.
Effetti di una mina : Il piede su una mina provoca un’onda d’urto di, più o meno, seimila metri al secondo, la temperatura al momento dello scoppio arriva a quattromila gradi e il rumore è di molto superiore a quanto possa sopportare l’orecchio umano. L’onda d’urto risale dal piede alla gamba e all’anca, le ossa del piede e della gamba si sgretolano, mentre il piede, la gamba e la coscia opposti, il basso ventre, talvolta il volto e gli occhi, rimangono offesi dalle schegge delle mine e da una moltitudine di materiali (sassi , pulviscolo, etc) proiettati dallo scoppio. Caduta al suolo, se non cade su una seconda mina, la vittima si trova in un grave stato di shock, con abbondante perdita di sangue. Queste appena descritte sono le conseguenze di una semplice mina a pressione ad effetto locale; le mine ad azione estesa e direzionali, come ad esempio quelle a frammentazione, che esplodono proiettando centinaia di piccole schegge, sono ancora più micidiali e provocano quasi sempre la morte delle persone investite che si trovano nel campo di azione delle mine.
Ho voluto descrivere cosa significa saltare su una mina, al fine di evidenziare la complessità dei traumi fisici
July 23, 1968: An Israeli El Al flight en route from Rome to Tel Aviv, Israel with a crew of ten and thirty-eight passengers, was hijacked by four Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Islamic terrorists and forced to land in Algiers, Algeria – an OPEC, Marxist Muslim fiefdom. August 10, 1968: While it was relatively meaningless by itself, it was part of a bigger campaign. In Turkey today, two firebombs were thrown into the USIS office in Izmir. The anti-American climate in Islamic Turkey would continue to fester and grow. August 10, 1968: Yasser Arafat’s al-Fatah detonated three grenades in Jerusalem’s Jewish section, injuring eight Israelis and two Americans. August 19, 1968: Yasser Arafat’s al-Fatahdetonated a bomb near the Parliament building in Jerusalem. No one was hurt. August 21, 1968: Al Fatah terrorists bombed the U.S. Consulate building in East Jerusalem demonstrating their hatred for Americans. September 4, 1968: Palestinian Muslims detonated three bombs in the Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv killing one Israeli and wounding 71 more. Attacking soft civilian targets was becoming a hallmark of Fatah terrorists. September 13, 1968: Syrian al-Sa’iqa terrorists attacked the Israeli police headquarters in Baniyas in the Golan Heights. The facility was destroyed and all five Jews who were inside were killed. October 26, 1968: In the Federal Republic of Germany, three prominent anti-Communist Croatians were assassinated in a Munich apartment. Throughout much of 1968, Communists in Croatia were attacking targets all across Europe. October 26, 1968: Armed with a revolver, a member of the Black Panthers, Raymond Johnson hijacked a National Airlines flight to Cuba. The Black Panther was arrested and held by Cuba. No one was injured and there were no prisoner exchanges or ransoms. October 26, 1968: Two Italians hijacked an Olympic Airways jet from Paris en route to Athens to publicize their opposition to the military junta in Greece. The terrorists brandished a pistol and a grenade. They gave the 130 passengers handbills telling them that they had just been punished for going to Greece. No one was injured and no prisoners were exchanged. November 22, 1968: Islamic terrorists in Israel used a large bomb to kill 12 Jews and wound 52 more in Jerusalem’s most crowed open-air market. December 26, 1968: Still basking in their July 23rd success, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine attacked another El Al aircraft in Athens, shooting and killing one passenger. In response, Israel destroyed 14 Lebanese planes in Beirut. The two Palestinian hijackers who perpetrated the attack were freed in September of 1970 as the result of a quad hijacking by the PFLP and subsequent prisoner exchange. December 29, 1968: Yasser Arafat’s al-Fatah claimed “credit” for shelling the Israeli town of Beisan in northeast Israel. December 31, 1968: In Israel, al-Fatah Islamic terrorists attacked the Jewish settlement of Kiryat Shmona in the upper Galilee. The rockets they deployed had been fired from Lebanon. It was the beginning of a foreboding trend. January 2, 1969: A lone Islamic terrorist hijacked an Olympic Airways flight that had departed from Crete en route to Athens. The plane was flown to Cairo, Egypt. February 3, 1969: Yasser Arafat, in the afterglow of the Time Magazine cover story on his violent and victorious defeat at the village of Al-Karameh, and flush with OPEC funding and jihadist recruits, was appointed Director of the Palestinian Liberation Organization in their meeting in Cairo, Egypt. The ugly face of Islamic terror had a new “Commander-in-Chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces.” The “Chairman of the PLO’s Political Department” was now Yasser Arafat. February 18, 1969: Palestinian Muslims attacked an Israeli El Al airliner in Zurich, Switzerland as it was preparing to take off en route to Tel Aviv. The cockpit of the airliner was machine-gunned by the four Islamic terrorists who belonged to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
The terrorists fired 200 bullets and lobbed incendiary grenades from their car as the plane taxied down the runway. February 25, 1969: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestinian “claimed credit” for detonating a bomb inside the British Consulate in Jerusalem. . March 1, 1969: In Germany, Islamic terrorists corrupted by the Muslim Brotherhood used a bomb to destroy an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 707 jet at the Frankfurt Airport. Several cleaning women were injured in the blast.
The Government of Ethiopia blamed the attack on the Syrian-Egyptian Movement for the Liberation of Eritrea. The Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front claimed credit for the bombing. March 6, 1969: Muslims belonging to the PFLP thought it would be a good idea to detonate a bomb in the Hebrew University cafeteria, so they did, mutilating and burning the bodies of 29 Jewish students. May 22, 1969: The attempted assassination of the first Israeli Prime Minister, Ben-Gurion, failed but the would-be killers were freed by Denmark. June 18, 1969: In Pakistan, three armed members of the Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front assaulted an Ethiopian airliner at the Karachi airport. The Boeing 707 was burned in the attack. The terrorists, all of whom were captured, told authorities that they carried out the attack to dramatize their opposition to Ethiopian rule in Eritrea. Since the Islamic Pakistani government was sympathetic to their cause the three men were jailed for less than one year. July 17, 1969: In India, a bomb was detonated inside of a USIS reading room in the American Consulate in Calcutta, burning one employee. July 18, 1969: In London, England, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine terrorists fire-bombed a department store owned by Jewish citizens of the U.K.. The PFLP claimed responsibility for the bombing and warned that there would be more bomb attacks on Jewish-owned establishments in London and in the United States.
PFLP leader George Habbash said, “We shall expand our operations everywhere, in all parts of the world. The enemy camp includes not only Israel but also the Zionist movement, world imperialism led by the United States.” As a Muslim Marxist, Habbash had to please his Islamic and Communist financiers. Terrorism is, after all, expensive. July 19, 1969: Islamic jihadists associated with the Sudan government firebombed a United States Information Services library in Khartoum. The fundamentalist Islamic regime in control of the Sudan would soon unleash the most deadly genocide in modern history, killing 2.7 million African Animists and Christians. July 22, 1969: Muslims in the Philippines threw hand grenades into a USIS library in the American Consulate building in Manila, killing one Filipino. They did this because Muslims are hostile to the truth. Honest, open, and informed discussion is the one thing that is lethal to their religion – and thus to the terror Islam inspires. August 17, 1969: In London, England, PFLP Islamic terrorists planted several bombs inside the Marks and Spencers Department Store. August 18, 1969: Six Islamic terrorists hijacked an Egyptian Misrair Anatov-24 flying from Cairo to the tourist destination of Aswan on the Nile River. The plane was forced to land in Jidda, Saudi Arabia. August 18, 1969: The Israel Touristy Office in Copenhagen, Denmark was bombed by Muslim militants. August 19, 1969: TWA flight 840 from Rome to Athens was hijacked to Syria, where President Assad was sympathetic to Islamic terrorism. The Palestinian terrorists destroyed the aircraft. August 29, 1969: In France, a TWA Boeing 707 flight from Paris was hijacked by two Palestinian Front for the Liberation of Palestine terrorists and forced to land in Damascus, Syria. The plane carried a crew of 12 and 101 passengers.
After the hijack the Islamic terrorists announced to the passengers that the PFLP had taken command of the flight, and they ordered the plane flown to Damascus. Immediately upon landing, the passengers managed to jump from the plane before a bomb went off, destroying the aircraft. Four passengers were injured.
The PFLP said the hijacking and destruction of the TWA jet, along with the hijacking of an El Al Israeli Airlines plane to Algeria in July l968, the attacks on El Al planes in Athens in December 1968 and in Zurich in February 1969, were all part of their plan to strike at “imperialist interests within and outside the Arab world.” Acknowledging their Muslim overlords, they also asserted that “the action was in reprisal for American assistance to Israel.”.
September 8, 1969: Arafat’s al-Fatah recruited two teenage boys and motivated the young Muslims to throw hand grenades into the El Al Airlines offices in Brussels, Belgium. Four people were wounded in the blast.
What’s interesting is that while the perpetrators admitted that they had conducted their mission on behalf of Fatah, yet the PFLP claimed credit for the attack. September 8, 1969: Two Islamic terrorists calling themselves “Palestinians,” bombed the Israeli Embassy in Bonn, Germany. The PFLP claimed credit. September 8, 1969: In the Hague, Netherlands, Muslim militants threw hand grenades into the Israeli Embassy. September 9, 1969: In Asmara, Ethiopia, the American Consul General Murray Jackson, was kidnapped along with a British businessman by Muslims corrupted in Cairo. After signing a document stating that he had been instructed in the terrorist’s objectives, and that he had not been mistreated, Mr. Jackson was released. September 12, 1969: In Jordan, a bomb went off on the porch of the Amman home of the U.S. assistant army attaché. September 13, 1969: Three armed members of the Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front hijacked an Ethiopian Airlines DC-6 with 66 passengers aboard. The flight, bound for Djibouti from Addis Ababa was forced by the Muslim militants to land at Aden, Southern Yemen. One of the hijackers, Muhammad Sayed, 18, was shot by an Ethiopian secret police official who had been a passenger on the flight. October 7, 1969: An undisclosed group of Argentinean terrorists bombed a number of American businesses for reasons they never disclosed. Although there were nine attacks, no one was injured. October 21, 1969: Marxist Muslim Muhammad Siad Barre assumed dictatorial power in a military coup d’etat following the assassination of Somalia’s second President, Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke. Barre nationalized the economy with the help of Soviet advisers and Cuban troops. His Supreme Ruling Council formulated political and legal institutions based on the Qur’an, Marx, Mao, Lenin, and Mussolini. Siad Barre explained: “The official ideology consists of three elements: my own conception of community, a form of socialism based on Marxist principles, and Islam.”. December 5, 1969: Four Muslim Militants were caught before they could attack an airliner in London. The subsequent plot on the 17th failed as a result. December 12, 1969: Islamic terrorists bombed the West Berlin office of Israeli El Al Airlines. No one was injured in the blast. December 12, 1969: Muslim militants associated with the Islamic Eritrean Liberation Front armed with pistols and explosives were killed by plainclothes security guards as they attempted to hijack an Ethiopian Airlines jet shortly after takeoff from Madrid on a flight to Addis Ababa.
In Damascus, Syria, the Eritrean Liberation Front admitted that the two slain men were members of their organization but claimed that they had not intended to hijack the airliner, merely to hand out leaflets. But on December 10, Spanish police had arrested a third ELF member at the Madrid airport for carrying explosives. December 20, 1969: In Islamic Turkey, a bomb was detonated outside the United States Information Services building in Ankara. December 21, 1969: Three Lebanese Muslims were caught as they tried to hijack a TWA plane in Athens. The flight was bound for Rome and then on to New York. The three Muslim militants, who used handguns and explosives, said that they were members of the PFLP, and that they had received orders to divert the airplane to Tunis where they were to evacuate the passengers and blow up the aircraft.
One of the hijackers confessed that he and his colleagues had planned to destroy the plane “to warn the Americans to stop providing air communications with Israel.” The three Islamic terrorists were freed after the hijacking of an Olympic Airways plane to Cairo on July 22, l970. December 29, 1969: Philippine terrorists attempted to assassinate U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew by bombing his car. No one claimed credit for the assault but these same tactics were deployed countless times by local Islamic groups such as the Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah Islamiyah, and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. January 1, 1970: In Turkey, an explosion occurred at the entrance of the U.S. Consulate in Istanbul. Islamic Turkey was becoming a dangerous place to be an American. January 9, 1970: In France, a TWA 707 airliner en route from Paris to Rome with just 20 passengers and crew aboard was hijacked to Beirut by a lone French terrorist. He said that he wanted to spite Americans and Israelis for their aggression in the Middle East. Considered a hero by Muslims, when the hijacker was taken into custody in Lebanon he was only sentenced to nine months in jail essentially the time he served awaiting trial. He was promptly released and returned to France, where he was tried for illegal possession of weapons and sentenced to eight months in prison, once again, the length of the trial process.
The Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine thought their criminal act was a good thing, so they claimed responsibility for the murder and mutilations. However, since the word has a problem understanding the benefits of being judgmental, and fails to appreciate the concept of responsibility, the murdering Muslim terrorists were set free after the September 6, 1970 hijacking of one Swiss and two U.S. airliners. January 11, 1970: In Ethiopia, Islamic jihadists shot and killed a U.S. soldier. The Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement was responsible for the shooting the American.
The Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement was composed of Islamic terrorists who are financed, trained, and armed by the fundamentalist Islamic government in neighboring Sudan. The terrorist club sought to depose the current secular government in Eritrea and replace it with an Islamic theocracy based upon Sharia Law. January 21, 1970: In the Philippines, a car bomb exploded behind the Joint U.S. Military Assistance Group headquarters in Manila. Three support staff were injured. February 10, 1970: In Germany today, three Islamic terrorists killed an Israeli citizen and wounded 11 other Jewish passengers in a grenade attack on a bus at the Munich airport. The militants deployed guns and grenades in their assault on the El Al airport shuttle. The carnage was minimized because the Israeli pilots wrestled the weapons away from the Islamic terrorists. February 17, 1970: The Germans foiled a PFLP hijacking of an El Al aircraft. However, their temporary success only served to encourage terrorism because the German government foolishly freed the kidnappers two months later. February 21, 1970: A Swiss Air flight 330 from Zurich bound for Tel Aviv was bombed in mid-air nine minutes after takeoff by the PFLP General Command, a PFLP splinter group. Forty-seven innocent souls lost their lives to Islam, 15 of whom were Israelis. The bomb, placed in the cargo hold, was triggered by a change in atmospheric pressure. While the crew attempted to turn the plane back to the airport, smoke in the cockpit and the loss of electrical power thwarted their efforts,. February 21, 1970: On the same day that the PFLP-General Command destroyed a Swiss aircraft, killing everyone aboard, the main branch of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine exploded a bomb aboard an Austrian Airlines Caravelle flight from Frankfurt, Germany to Vienna, Austria. Fortunately, the damage was not catastrophic and the plane returned to Frankfurt safely with its 33 passengers.
The bomb was detonated twenty minutes after takeoff by an altimeter reading of fourteen thousand feet. March 1, 1970: In Italy, a bomb was found in the luggage of an Islamic terrorist aboard an Ethiopian airliner in Rome. The device had been placed by members of the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement. March 4, 1970: Two hours after a violent anti-American demonstration in the Philippines, a bomb rocked the embassy area and damaged a passing tanker truck carrying gasoline. March 14, 1970: A United Arab Airlines Antonov 24 flight flying from Athens to Cairo via Alexandria was four minutes out of its stopover when a bomb exploded in the landing gear well of the rear of the left engine, causing extensive damage to the undercarriage and injuring two of the ten passengers. March 20, 1970: In Ethiopia, five members of a National Geographic film crew, including an American producer, were taken hostage by members of the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement. They held the five hostages for 17 days. March 28, 1970: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) fired seven rockets into the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon and into the JFK Library, also in Beirut. The PFLP later said that the attack was in retaliation for “plans of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut to foment religious strife and create civil massacres in Lebanon aimed at paralyzing the Palestine resistance movement.” September 11, 1970: In India, a fifth jetliner, a BOAC VC-10, from Bombay to Beirut carrying 150 passengers, was hijacked by the PFLP sympathizer. The plane was also flown to Zarqa, Jordan. The passengers were held hostage pending the release of Miss Khaled from Briton and six other sub-human species. Once they were freed, the plane was blown up. No Islamic country has ever built an airplane, but their citizens became quite apt at destroying them. September 16, 1970: In what was justified as retaliation for the plane hijackings the week before, but was actually a response to the three assassination attempts on the Jordanian King Hussein’s life, the Islamic nation’s Army attacked Palestinian communities within the kingdom. Since most Jordanian Arabs (70% of the total population) were related to those who call themselves “Palestinians,” and since the ruling monarchy wasn’t among them, this was a preemptive strike designed to keep the majority population subservient to the Hashemite minority. The armed assault on Palestinian refugee camps and communities would continue through July of 1971. Late September, 1970: In Jordan, the terrorist organization known as Black_September was formed. An outgrowth of Arafat’s Fatah, the Arab League’s PLO, and Egypt’s Fedayeen, they claimed to be descendants of Hasan’s Hashshashin/Assassins of Persian and Crusade infamy. February 2, 1971: In India, two armed Kashmiri Muslims hijacked an Indian Airlines plane to Pakistan. They demanded that the Indian government release 36 convicted Islamic terrorists held in Kashmir jails. When the government rejected their demands, they blew up the plane. February 10, 1971: In Sweden, two Croatian Muslims seized control of the Yugoslav consulate in Gothenburg in an unsuccessful attempt to ransom its occupants in exchange for convicted terrorists held in Yugoslav jails. The Yugoslav government refused to meet their demands, and the terrorists surrendered the next day to the Swedish authorities. They were tried and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. But on September 16, 1972, they were released and flown to Madrid after three Croatians hijacked a Scandinavian airliner and demanded their freedom, along with the release of five Croatians involved in the assassination of the Yugoslav ambassador on April 7, 1971. April 8, 1971: In Sweden, Croatian terrorists assassinated the Yugoslav ambassador and wounded two Yugoslav diplomats in Stockholm. These murdering jihadists were released from jail when three Croatians militants hijacked a Scandinavian airliner on September 16, 1972, and demanded their freedom. May 29, 1971: In their second attack since this timeline began, Basque nationalists attempted to kidnap Henri Wolimer, the French Consul in San Sebastian. He resisted and escaped. There were no injuries in either mission. June 4, 1971: PFLP terrorists carried out an assault on the Liberian-registered oil tanker Coral Sea. Using a speedboat, the jihadists fired 10 bazooka shells at the tanker, causing some damage but no casualties. The attack occurred in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb at the entrance to the Red Sea. It was intended to deter tankers from using the Israeli port of Eilat. August 24, 1971: In Madrid, Spain, a bomb placed by Al Fatah’s Black_September Organization exploded in a Boeing 707 owned by the Royal Jordanian Airline. The aircraft was parked at the Barajas Airport. September 26, 1971: In Yemen, three bombs exploded at a U.S. Consular officer’s home. The bombing was believed to be part of an Islamic terrorist campaign against the government. December 15, 1971: In London, the Black_September Organization attempted to assassinate Zaid Rifai, the Jordanian Ambassador. December 16, 1971: Three people were injured by parcel bombs sent by the Black_September Organization to the Jordanian mission to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
Muslims first genocide in SudanDecember, 1971: The first Islamic war in the Sudan was nearing resolution. However, Arab Muslims trying to Sharia Law in all of the Sudan had already killed 500,000 Africans, 80% of them being unarmed civilians, leaving a million more homeless.
British bungling had set the stage for the slaughter in Sudan. As part of the UK’s strategy in the Middle East, the Arab Muslim north and the African animist and Christian south were merged into a single administrative protectorate. In 1953 Egypt and the UK granted “independence” to the Sudan because it was becoming impossible to control under these circumstances. Muslims don’t share power with anyone. When this happened, the Arab Muslims in the north immediately recanted the agreements they had made with the African south, and began attacking them. A succession of Islamic dominated administrations did nothing to stop the terror. It was only when a fundamentalist Muslim vs. Muslim Marxist rift in the north emerged, that the genocide temporarily lost momentum. In 1971, Joseph Lagu became the first to organize Africans in the south, providing a voice for the oppressed. May 11, 1972: A series of bombs placed by the Baader-Meinhof Gang exploded at the Fifth U.S. Army Corps headquarters in West Germany, killing Colonel Paul Bloomquist and wounding 13 others.
The Baader-Meinhof Group was a violent communist association that acted in partnership with the PFLP. They emerged from the Federal Republic of Germany in the late 1960s. On April 2, 1968, Andreas Baader, the group’s founder, and his girlfriend Gudrun Ensslin, bombed a Frankfurt department store. The well-known German journalist Ulrike Meinhof, helped Baader flee custody. Following the prison break, Meinhof and Baader enrolled in a terrorist training camp run by the Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and became infamous.
Returning from the Islamic terrorist training camp, Baader, Meinhof, and Ensslin engaged in a violent spree of bombings, abductions, and firearm attacks. They professed a hazy mix of Marxism, Maoism, and Muslim beliefs as the terrorized West Germany. May 24, 1972: In Zimbabwe, a South African Airways Boeing 727 flying from Salisbury to Johannesburg with 66 passengers and crew on board was hijacked by two Lebanese Muslim terrorists who threatened to blow up the aircraft. May 31, 1972: After receiving the $5 million ransom from the German government, the PLO/PFLP/BSO financed and dispatched members of the Japanese Red Army to attack Lod Airport in Tel Aviv. They bombed the terminal and used automatic weapons to gun down and kill 27 people milling in the crowd, wounding 75 to 80 more. Yes, Islam has always found soulmates in Communist, Socialist, and Fascist circles. June 10, 1972: The West German embassy in Dublin, Ireland was damaged by a bomb that had been placed by supporters of the Baader-Meinhof Gang of Muslim-trained Marxists. July 18, 1972: An attaché case containing fifteen pounds of explosives was discovered in the USIS Cultural Center in Manila. The device was set to explode at 1 AM Saturday. The guard did not check the case until Monday morning, and the building was spared only because of the failure of the timing device. July 31, 1972: A group of hijackers, including George Edward Wright, George Brown, Melvin McNair, his wife Jean Allen McNair, and Joyce T. Burgess, who said they were Black Panther Party sympathizers, took over a Delta Air Lines jet over Florida and directed the plane to Algeria after collecting $1 million in ransom.
August 5, 1972: The PFLP/PLO/BSO attacked an oil refinery in Trieste, Italy. The damage they wrought in the ensuing fire in large oil storage tanks was considerable, estimated at over $7 million. The attack was justified because Germany and Austria allegedly supplied oil to Israel. Attack on the Munich Airport, February 10, 1970: Three terrorists attacked El Al passengers in a bus at the Munich Airport with guns and grenades. One passenger was killed and 11 were injured. All three terrorists were captured by airport police. The Action Organization for the Liberation of Palestine and the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility for the attack. Munich Olympic Massacre, September 5, 1972: Eight Palestinian “Black September” terrorists seized eleven Israeli athletes in the Olympic Village in Munich, West Germany. In a bungled rescue attempt by West German authorities, nine of the hostages and five terrorists were killed. Ambassador to Sudan Assassinated March 2, 1973: U.S. Ambassador to Sudan Cleo A. Noel and other diplomats were assassinated at the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Khartoum by members of the Black September organization. Attack and Hijacking at the Rome Airport December 17, 1973: Five terrorists pulled weapons from their luggage in the terminal lounge at the Rome airport, killing two persons. They then attacked a Pan American 707 bound for Beirut and Tehran, destroying it with incendiary grenades and killing 29 persons, including 4 senior Moroccan officials and 14 American employees of ARAMCO. They then herded 5 Italian hostages into a Lufthansa airliner and killed an Italian customs agent as he tried to escape, after which they forced the pilot to fly to Beirut. After Lebanese authorities refused to let the plane land, it landed in Athens, where the terrorists demanded the release of 2 Arab terrorists. In order to make Greek authorities comply with their demands, the terrorists killed a hostage and threw his body onto the tarmac. The plane then flew to Damascus, where it stopped for two hours to obtain fuel and food. It then flew to Kuwait, where the terrorists released their hostages in return for passage to an unknown destination. The Palestine Liberation Organization disavowed the attack, and no group claimed responsibility for it. Ambassador to Afghanistan Assassinated, February 14, 1979: Four Afghans kidnapped U.S. Ambassador Adolph Dubs in Kabul and demanded the release of various “religious figures.” Dubs was killed, along with four alleged terrorists, when Afghan police stormed the hotel room where he was being held. Iran Hostage Crisis, November 4, 1979: After President Carter agreed to admit the Shah of Iran into the US, Iranian radicals seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and took 66 American diplomats hostage. Thirteen hostages were soon released, but the remaining 53 were held until their release on January 20, 1981. Grand Mosque Seizure, November 20, 1979: 200 Islamic terrorists seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, taking hundreds of pilgrims hostage. Saudi and French security forces retook the shrine after an intense battle in which some 250 people were killed and 600 wounded. Threats from Libya
When intelligence reports surfaced that Libyan leader Muammar el-Qaddafi had plans to assassinate American diplomats in Rome and Paris, President Reagan expelled all Libyan diplomats from the U.S. (May 6, 1981) and closed Libya’s diplomatic mission in Washington, D.C. Three months later, Reagan ordered U.S. Navy jets to shoot down Libyan fighters if they ventured inside what was known as the “line of death.” (This was the line created by Qaddafi to demarcate Libya’s territorial waters, which he said extended more than 100 miles off the country’s shoreline; the U.S. and other maritime nations recognized Libyan territorial waters as extending only 12 miles from shore.) As expected, the Libyan Air Force counter-attacked and Navy jets shot down two SU-22 warplanes about 60 miles off the Libyan coast.
Bombing of U.S. Embassy in Beirut, April 18, 1983: Sixty-three people, including the CIA’s Middle East director, were killed and 120 were injured in a 400-pound suicide truck-bomb attack on the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Bombing of Marine Barracks, Beirut, October 23, 1983 : Simultaneous suicide truck-bomb attacks were made on American and French compounds in Beirut, Lebanon. A 12,000-pound bomb destroyed the U.S. compound, killing 242 Americans, while 58 French troops were killed when a 400-pound device destroyed a French base. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait, Dec. 12, 1983 The American embassy in Kuwait was bombed in a series of attacks whose targets also included the French embassy, the control tower at the airport, the country’s main oil refinery, and a residential area for employees of the American corporation Raytheon. Six people were killed, including a suicide truck bomber, and more than 80 others were injured. The suspects were thought to be members of Al Dawa, or “The Call,” an Iranian-backed group and one of the principal Shiite groups operating against Saddam Hussein in Iraq.
Kidnapping of Embassy Official, March 16, 1984: The Islamic Jihad kidnapped and later murdered Political Officer William Buckley in Beirut, Lebanon. Other U.S. citizens not connected to the U.S. government were seized over a succeeding two-year period. TWA Hijacking, June 14, 1985: A Trans-World Airlines flight was hijacked en route to Rome from Athens by two Lebanese Hizballah terrorists and forced to fly to Beirut. The eight crew members and 145 passengers were held for seventeen days, during which one American hostage, a U.S. Navy sailor, was murdered. After being flown twice to Algiers, the aircraft was returned to Beirut after Israel released 435 Lebanese and Palestinian prisoners. Air India Bombing, June 23, 1985: A bomb destroyed an Air India Boeing 747 over the Atlantic, killing all 329 people aboard. Both Sikh and Kashmiri terrorists were blamed for the attack. Two cargo handlers were
killed at Tokyo airport, Japan, when another Sikh bomb exploded in an Air Canada aircraft en route to India. Bombing in Copenhagen : July 22, 1985 Two near-simultaneous bombs in Copenhagen, at the Jewish synagogue and at the offices of Northwest Orient, explode, killing one and injuring 32. The bombers are interrupted while placing a third, more powerful, bomb, which they later dispose of in the city’s harbour. The bombs are later linked to Islamic Jihad.
Soviet Diplomats Kidnapped : September 30, 1985: In Beirut, Lebanon, Sunni terrorists kidnapped four Soviet diplomats. One was killed but three were later released. Achille Lauro Hijacking, October 7, 1985: Four Palestinian Liberation Front terrorists seized the Italian cruise liner in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, taking more than 700 hostages. One U.S. passenger was murdered before the Egyptian government offered the terrorists safe haven in return for the hostages freedom. Egyptian Airliner Hijacking November 23, 1985: An EgyptAir airplane bound from Athens to Malta and carrying several U.S. citizens was hijacked by the Abu Nidal Group. Airport Attacks in Rome and Vienna December 27, 1985: Four gunmen belonging to the Abu Nidal Organization attacked the El Al and Trans World Airlines ticket counters at Rome’s Leonardo da Vinci Airport with grenades and automatic rifles. Thirteen persons were killed and 75 were wounded before Italian police and Israeli security guards killed three of the gunmen and captured the fourth. Three more Abu Nidal gunmen attacked the El Al ticket counter at Vienna’s Schwechat Airport, killing three persons and wounding 30. Austrian police killed one of the gunmen and captured the others. Aircraft Bombing in Greece, March 30, 1986: A Palestinian splinter group detonated a bomb as TWA Flight 840 approached Athens airport, killing four U.S. citizens. Berlin Discoteque Bombing, April 5, 1986: Two U.S. soldiers were killed and 79 American servicemen were injured in a Libyan bomb attack on a nightclub in West Berlin, West Germany. In retaliation U.S. military jets bombed targets in and around Tripoli and Benghazi. Kidnapping of William Higgins February 17, 1988: U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel W. Higgins was kidnapped and murdered by the Iranian-backed Hizballah group while serving with the United Nations Truce Supervisory Organization (UNTSO) in southern Lebanon. Naples USO Attack, April 14, 1988: The Organization of Jihad Brigades exploded a car-bomb outside a USO Club in Naples, Italy, killing one U.S. sailor. Pan Am 103 Bombing, December 21, 1988: Pan American Airlines Flight 103 was blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, by a bomb believed to have been placed on the aircraft by Libyan terrorists in Frankfurt, West Germany. All 259 people on board were killed. Bombing of UTA Flight 772, September 19, 1989: A bomb explosion destroyed UTA Flight 772 over the Sahara Desert in southern Niger during a flight from Brazzaville to Paris. All 170 persons aboard were killed. Six Libyans were later found guilty in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment. Bombing of the Israeli Embassy in Argentina, March 17, 1992: Hizballah claimed responsibility for a blast that leveled the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, causing the deaths of 29 and wounding 242.
Hotel bombing in Somalia Dec. 29, 1992 In the first al-Qaida attack against U.S. forces, operatives bomb a hotel where U.S. troops — on their way to a humanitarian mission in Somalia — had been staying. Two Austrian tourists are killed. Almost simultaneously, another group of al-Qaida operatives are caught at Aden airport, Yemen, as they prepare to launch rockets at U.S. military planes. U.S. troops quickly leave Aden.
World Trade Center Bombing, February 26, 1993: The World Trade Center in New York City was badly damaged when a car bomb planted by Islamic terrorists exploded in an underground garage. The bomb left 6 people dead and 1,000 injured. The men carrying out the attack were followers of Umar Abd al-Rahman, an Egyptian cleric who preached in the New York City area. Attempted Assassination of President Bush by Iraqi Agent. April 14, 1993: The Iraqi intelligence service attempted to assassinate former U.S. President George Bush during a visit to Kuwait. In retaliation, the U.S. launched a cruise missile attack 2 months later on the Iraqi capital Baghdad. Kashmiri Hostage-taking, July 4, 1995: In India six foreigners, including two U.S. citizens, were taken hostage by Al-Faran, a Kashmiri separatist group. One non-U.S. hostage was later found beheaded. Jerusalem Bus Attack August 21, 1995: HAMAS claimed responsibility for the detonation of a bomb that killed 6 and injured over 100 persons, including several U.S. citizens. Saudi Military Installation Attack November 13, 1995: The Islamic Movement of Change planted a bomb in a Riyadh military compound that killed one U.S. citizen, several foreign national employees of the U.S. government, and over 40 others. Egyptian Embassy Attack November 19, 1995: A suicide bomber drove a vehicle into the Egyptian Embassy compound in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing at least 16 and injuring 60 persons. Three militant Islamic groups claimed responsibility. HAMAS Bus Attack February 26, 1996: In Jerusalem, a suicide bomber blew up a bus, killing 26 persons, including three U.S. citizens, and injuring some 80 persons, including three other US citizens. Dizengoff Center Bombing March 4, 1996: HAMAS and the Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ) both claimed responsibility for a bombing outside of Tel Aviv’s largest shopping mall that killed 20 persons and injured 75 others, including 2 U.S. citizens. West Bank Attack May 13, 1996: Arab gunmen opened fire on a bus and a group of Yeshiva students near the Bet El settlement, killing a dual U.S./Israeli citizen and wounding three Israelis. No one claimed responsibility for the attack, but HAMAS was suspected. Empire State Building Sniper Attack February 23, 1997: A Palestinian gunman opened fire on tourists at an observation deck atop the Empire State Building in New York City, killing a Danish national and wounding visitors from the United States, Argentina, Switzerland, and France before turning the gun on himself. A handwritten note carried by the gunman claimed this was a punishment attack against the “enemies of Palestine.” Israeli Shopping Mall Bombing September 4, 1997: Three suicide bombers of HAMAS detonated bombs in the Ben Yehuda shopping mall in Jerusalem, killing eight persons, including the bombers, and wounding nearly 200 others. A dual U.S./Israeli citizen was among the dead, and 7 U.S. citizens were wounded. Murder of U.S. Businessmen in Pakistan November 12, 1997: Two unidentified gunmen shot to death four U.S. auditors from Union Texas Petroleum Corporation and their Pakistani driver after they drove away from the Sheraton Hotel in Karachi. The Islami Inqilabi Council, or Islamic Revolutionary Council, claimed responsibility in a call to the U.S. Consulate in Karachi. In a letter to Pakistani newspapers, the Aimal Khufia Action Committee also claimed responsibility. Tourist Killings in Egypt November 17, 1997: Al-Gama’at al-Islamiyya (IG) gunmen shot and killed 58 tourists and four Egyptians and wounded 26 others at the Hatshepsut Temple in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor. Thirty-four Swiss, eight Japanese, five Germans, four Britons, one French, one Colombian, a dual Bulgarian/British citizen, and four unidentified persons were among the dead. Twelve Swiss, two Japanese, two Germans, one French, and nine Egyptians were among the wounded. Attack on U.S.S. Cole, October 12, 2000: In Aden, Yemen, a small dingy carrying explosives rammed the destroyer U.S.S. Cole, killing 17 sailors and injuring 39 others. Supporters of Usama Bin Laden were suspected. Bus Stop Bombing, April 22, 2001: A member of HAMAS detonated a bomb he was carrying near a bus stop in Kfar Siva, Israel, killing one person and injuring 60. Philippines Hostage Incident, May 27, 2001: Muslim Abu Sayyaf guerrillas seized 13 tourists and 3 staff members at a resort on Palawan Island and took their captives to Basilan Island. The captives included three U.S. citizens: Guellermo Sobero and missionaries Martin and Gracia Burnham. Philippine troops fought a series of battles with the guerrillas between June 1 and June 3 during which 9 hostages escaped and two were found dead. The guerrillas took additional hostages when they seized the hospital in the town of Lamitan. On June 12, Abu Sayyaf spokesman Abu Sabaya claimed that Sobero had been killed and beheaded; his body was found in October. The Burnhams remained in captivity until June 2002. Tel-Aviv Nightclub Bombing, June 1, 2001: HAMAS claimed responsibility for the suicide bombing of a popular Israeli nightclub that caused over 140 casualties. HAMAS Restaurant Bombing, August 9, 2001: A HAMAS-planted bomb detonated in a Jerusalem pizza restaurant, killing 15 people and wounding more than 90. The Israeli response included occupation of Orient House, the Palestine Liberation Organization’s political headquarters in East Jerusalem. Suicide Bombing in Israel, September 9, 2001: The first suicide bombing carried out by an Israeli Arab killed 3 persons in Nahariya. HAMAS claimed responsibility. Death of “the Lion of the Panjshir”, September 9, 2001: Two suicide bombers fatally wounded Ahmed Shah Massoud, a leader of Afghanistan’s Northern Alliance, which had opposed both the Soviet occupation and the post-Soviet Taliban government. The bombers posed as journalists and were apparently linked to al-Qaida. The Northern Alliance did not confirm Massoud’s death until September 15. Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Homeland, September 11, 2001: Two hijacked airliners crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center. Soon thereafter, the Pentagon was struck by a third hijacked plane. A fourth hijacked plane, suspected to be bound for a high-profile target in Washington, crashed into a field in southern Pennsylvania. The attacks killed 3,025 U.S. citizens and other nationals. President Bush and Cabinet officials indicated that Usama Bin Laden was the prime suspect and that they considered the United States in a state of war with international terrorism. In the aftermath of the attacks, the United States formed the Global Coalition Against Terrorism.
… and we know terrorism has not stopped…. it continues and we must be vigilant. We must not forget. We must not put our heads in the sand. We must demand that our elected officials stop playing politics. This isn’t a game. The common thread in all the attacks is that there is a deep seeded hatred for us.
La giustizia prima o poi arriva sempre e paga con la stessa moneta che hai usato contro dei essea.
KABUL (Reuters) – The Taliban’s top operational commander, Mullah Dadullah, has been killed in a clash in southern Afghanistan, security officials said on Sunday.
“Mullah Dadullah has been killed and his body is in Kandahar,” said Saeed Ansari, spokesman for the intelligence department.
“Yes, he was killed last night and right now I have his body before me,” Kandahar’s governor Assadullah Khalid told Reuters by phone.
He said Dadullah was killed in neighboring Helmand province.
Another intelligence official said the one-legged Dadullah was killed in a clash with Afghan troops in the southern province of Helmand on Saturday night.
Apart from leading most Taliban attacks in the south, the notorious Dadullah was also believed to be behind a series of kidnappings of foreigners and Afghans and some beheadings which earned him the title of Afghanistan’s Al Zarqawi, after the Qaeda leader in Iraq who was killed in a U.S.-led attack.
He was a member of Taliban’s 10 member leadership council and close to the movement’s fugitive leader, Mullah Mohammad Omar.
There have been several reports over recent years that Dadullah had been killed or captured.
If confirmed, his death would be a heavy blow for the Taliban, fighting to expel foreign troops since they were ousted in a U.S.-led offensive after the September 11, 2001, attacks.
He would also be the most important Taliban killed since then.
In December, U.S.-led forces killed another top Taliban official, Mullah Mohammad Akhtar Osmani, in an air attack in the south of the country after a tip-off by Pakistan.
The Taliban are having more success with paper bullets, than with real ones. On the ground, over a hundred Taliban fighters have been killed in the last week, as NATO troops continue their own Spring Offensive, which appears to have cancelled the long threatened Taliban Spring Offensive. NATO troops are forcing the Taliban to fight, by going into drug producing areas of Helmand province. This area is Heroin Central, where a disproportionate amount of drugs are produced. The Taliban have to try and defend this, because their share of the drug profits pays many of their gunmen. No pay, and a lot fewer guys will carry a rifle for the cause.
Meanwhile, the Taliban are doing better in the Information War. They have thoroughly intimidated the French, with both candidates in the current French presidential contest promising to pull out of Afghanistan if elected. To help that along, the Taliban released one of the two French aid workers they had recently kidnapped. The Taliban also have an information war campaign going against Canada, hoping to strengthen Canadian anti-war groups sufficiently to get Canadian troops withdrawn. This would be a major win, because the Canadian troops have been particularly effective against the Taliban.
Unable to score any success against foreign or Afghan troops, the Taliban go for easy, if empty and expensive, triumphs. The most typical ones involve attacking a small district capital in a remote area. These are usually defended by only a few police, and easily overrun. The Taliban publicists then quickly proclaim "district capital captured," knowing that the mass media will pick that up and make it sound like the Taliban were taking over. The reality is that Afghan security forces and NATO air power quickly shows up, and usually catch a number of fleeing Taliban. As a result, these propaganda victories are expensive in terms of Taliban lives, and the Taliban foot soldiers have come to look at these "conquests" as suicide missions.
The Taliban also tried to convince the world that their leader, Mullah Omar, and al Qaeda head, Osama bin Laden were still in charge and supervising operations. Bin Laden has not been heard from since January, 2006. Back then, his sickly voice was heard exhorting followers to kill more energetically. But for the last few months, there have been persistent rumors that bin Laden himself has died of disease.
Trading five captured Taliban for a kidnapped Italian journalist last month turned out, as expected, to be a major headache. Since then, there have been three more kidnappings, with the Taliban holding fifteen hostages (two French, 13 Afghan), and demanding that Taliban prisoners be released, or the hostages will be killed. To prove their point, the Taliban beheaded the Afghan interpreter of the freed Italian journalist. The government, realizing it had made a mistake dealing for the Italian journalist, refused to make a deal for the Afghan interpreter. The only reason an exchange was made in the first place was because the Italian government was under pressure, by political disputes back home, to withdraw Italian troops from Afghanistan, because of the kidnapped Italian journalist. It was a tough call to make, because the Italian troops are among those NATO forces who are not allowed to fight, but they do help with security in areas of the country where there is no Taliban threat. Afghans were upset that a similar deal was not made for the two Afghans taken with the Italian. But the government realized too late that, making such deals, only leads to more kidnappings.
Italy is the latest nation to realize that it’s troops have to be equipped with new communications and computer gear, to make them capable of "network-centric" operations. The Italians have first hand experience in Iraq, with American units equipped for this sort of thing. They note Germany, and other NATO countries, spending billions on this. So the Italians have budgeted $13 billion to buy the equipment needed to operate with a battlefield Internet capability.
Italy sees most of this capability being put to work on peacekeeping missions. Italy currently has over 10,000 troops deployed overseas in peacekeeping missions. This kind of work puts a premium on communications. The peacekeepers are usually outnumbered by the local bad guys, and need to keep an eye on a large amount of unfamiliar territory. The Italian effort is a common strategy among nations who are spending the large amounts of money to make their troops "digital." Many peacekeepers are already using satellite communications and UAVs, two major components of digital forces, and know that the stuff makes live a lot easier out there. (TKS Berlusconi)
March 22, 2007 :
Italian firm Iveco has a produced a new Light Multirole Vehicle (LMV), for the Italian army, and several foreign customers. The seven ton, 4×4 vehicle is another design influenced by the success of armored hummers being used in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Italian army has ordered 1,210 LMVs, and will receive 500 this year. Belgium and Britain have each ordered 400, and Norway has bought 25.
Like the hummer, the LMV normally carries five people. The LMV can carry a remote control gun turret on the roof, and there will be variants in which the rear of the vehicle will be used for cargo or equipment. The LMV is similar in size to the hummer (15.8 feet long and 7.3 feet wide), but is actually a few percent larger, and weighs about a third more. Like the hummers built with armor (rather than having it added), the LMV provides excellent protection from bullets and roadside bombs. The V-shaped hull of the LMV improves protection from explosions beneath the vehicle. The LMV costs about the same as an armored hummer ($170,000 each).
Italy is still Allied? There was a major embarrassment at the CIA when it was discovered that Italian detectives had been able to identify and track some CIA agents because the agents had used a frequent flyer card to travel around Europe. That card provided enough information for the Italians to identify the CIA men as CIA employees. All this was going on because the Italian agents were trying to find out if the CIA was involved in the abduction of a Kurdish terrorist from Italy in 2003. Although this was done with the cooperation of Italian counter-terrorism officials, it was also done without the permission of the Italian government. That has turned into a major scandal in Italy, where fear of terrorists and anti-Americanism both compete for media attention (This has happened with the actual leftist-communist government).
The CIA is conducting an investigation to find out how widespread this sort of sloppiness is among its field agents. One thing that will probably come out of this is that the CIA agents thought that, since they were operating in an allied country, and with obviously cooperative Italian counter-terrorism agents, they did not have to use the kind of precautions meant to keep them safe in a hostile environment.
While European counter-terrorism organizations have been diligent at tracking, and fighting, Islamic terrorism in Europe, their political bosses are faced with media and public attitudes driven more by fear (of terrorist attack) and a desire to blame someone else (like the U.S.) This creates some strange situations. Like Italian courts trying to track down and arrest American CIA employees.
May 8, 2007:
The government has about 100,000 soldier and police in service or training. Over the next few years, that number will be increased to at least 132,000. While the Taliban and drug gangs have far fewer armed men on the payroll (under 20,000), they have the cash to pay their gunmen more, and bribe army and police commanders. This corruption is a major problem in the security forces, and is expected to get worse.
May 7, 2007:
The Taliban and al Qaeda continue to use suicide bomb attacks as much as possible. There have been about 43 such attacks so far this year, which have killed over a hundred people (most of them civilians). Overall, the level of Taliban violence is less than last year. The Taliban boasted of a larger "offensive" this year, but so far have not been able to deliver.
May 6, 2007:
Since October, 2001, 200 U.S. troops have been killed in combat. That’s about one soldier in every 600 who has served a year in Afghanistan. That’s an exceptionally low casualty rate. In addition, 119 soldiers died from non-combat causes. When Russia was fighting in Afghanistan during the 1980s, they had about six times as many troops in the country, and suffered about 35 times as many combat dead, and even more non-combat dead (mainly from disease).
May 2, 2007:
The Taliban have had more success using publicists, than guys with guns. Issuing stories of American atrocities against Afghans, are readily accepted by many news outlets in the region and around the world. Later reports of how those stories proved to be false, do not get picked up as eagerly. This the Taliban can score points among people outside the combat zone. But on the ground, the truth is much more harmful to the Taliban. The use of civilians as human shields is a widely known Taliban tactics, and entire villages will flee if they know Taliban fighters are headed their way. If there are enough armed men in the village, the Taliban will be confronted with force, and urged to go elsewhere.
April 9, 2007:
The Taliban ambushed a demining team, killing seven and wounding four. Until now, demining teams were left alone, since the Russian land mines, that still cover about 15 percent of the country, are a threat to all. The demining effort has been going on since 1989, paid for by over $300 million in foreign aid. But the Taliban see anything benefiting Afghans, that does not come from the Taliban, as hurting support for the Taliban. So now the Taliban attack any foreign aid project, including food and medical supplies for those hurt during the Spring floods. It’s Gods Will.
April 5, 2007:
While the Taliban talk of a Spring offensive, it’s NATO and Afghan troops who are actually launching one. The battlefield is Helmand province in the south. This is the home of the most dedicated Taliban tribesmen, as well as the most active producers of opium and heroin. Helmand is where the money is, the money that keeps the Taliban, as well as the drug gangs, going. It’s tough to run a heroin producing operation with all these soldiers running around, but the drug business is the core of Taliban military strength. The pro-Taliban tribes have been defending their conservative ways for centuries. In the 1990s, these southern tribes managed to gain control of most of Afghanistan, and tried to impose their customs on the rest of the country. This was a spectacular failure, as seen by the rapidity of the Taliban’s collapse in late 2001. The current "war" is an attempt by the Taliban to establish a base in southern Afghanistan. So far, this effort has failed.
Italy is taking a lot of heat for the way they pressured the Afghan government to release five captured Taliban, in order to get an Italian journalist released from Taliban captivity last month. In response, the Italians are calling for international guidelines, supervised by the UN, on how to deal with these hostage situations. This is seen as another cynical move by the Italians, who have long been willing to make deals with terrorists, as long as it was in Italys interest.
The recent Italian effort in this area has resulted in two French citizens and at least twelve Afghans being kidnapped. The Afghan government has already said it will not repeat the mistake it made in dealing with the Italians. So the new bunch of captives are in danger of being killed, since the Taliban generally don’t release captives when the ransom demanded is not forthcoming. The Taliban also have their standards.
The recriminations and finger-pointing in Italy has revealed that the government paid a $2 million ransom for another Italian reported kidnapped in Afghanistan last year. That buys a lot of hired guns, and gets a lot of Afghan and NATO troops killed. But the Italians don’t care. The Italians know full well that the best policy is no ransom, no negotiation, and go after the kidnappers. But this is politically unacceptable in Italy, where many leftists are sympathetic to the Taliban, and don’t support using force against them. As the old saying goes, all politics is local.
Parents Take Up Arms Against the Taliban
Terrorists have to be careful that they don’t do something that will enrage, rather than terrify. A recent example of this can be found in Afghanistan, where the Taliban attempt, to terrorize Afghans into shutting down secular schools, backfired. Last year in southern Afghanistan, the Taliban burned down 200 schools, and terrorized parents into shutting down another 400. Those 600 schools meant 130,000 students were no longer able to attend classes. Several million parents in the region demanded that the government do something.
Officials pointed out that the government, and foreign aid agencies, were able to build thousands of schools, but did not have the manpower to guard them. In response, last Fall, parents pressured their village and tribal leaders into organizing a guard force for the schools. This was a risky business. Most villages have fewer weapons (often mainly bolt action rifles, pistols and shotguns), to use against up to a hundred heavily armed (with AK-47s and RPGs) Taliban. But this action across the region was sending a message to the Taliban; attack our schools and you’ll have to fight the parents. While many of the tribes in the region contain many pro-Taliban members, the majority of the people wanted to protect their schools.
The Taliban responded in two ways. First, they said they would spend several million dollars to build dozens of new, Taliban approved (mainly religious subjects) schools, most of them in villages where schools had been burned down. Second, the Taliban campaign against the schools withered. The number of schools attacked each month declined by 90 percent. But the after effects of this remain to be seen. For the moment, the Taliban are much less tolerated in many parts of southern Afghanistan. But the fathers of children are not happy about spending several nights a month taking their turn guarding an empty, and usually unheated, school house. However, the police are being promised more cooperation (that is, information about any Taliban activity in the neighborhood), when Spring, and Taliban gunmen, begin roaming the hills again.
Why Islamic Militants Hate Women
One reason for Islamic terrorism is there are too many Moslems. At least in the sense that the economies of Islamic countries cannot create enough jobs for all the young people coming of age. Consider that for the last fifty years, the population of all Moslem countries has tripled. That’s population growth that is more than double the rate of the world as a whole, and about ten times the rate of Europe. It’s about five times the rate in the United States.
Many of those unemployed young men are angry, and making war is a typical activity of angry young men. But the women are not too happy either, and this is becoming one a major threat to Islamic terrorists. In Islamic societies, women’s activities are greatly restricted. One thing they are encouraged to do is have lots of children. Many women in Islamic countries are rebelling against this. You don’t hear much about this, because women don’t rebel in the same loud, headline grabbing way that men do. What unhappy women often do is stop having children. Not so easy to do, you think? Well, think again.
The rest of the world has found that the best way to curb population growth is to give women educational and economic opportunities. This actually works too well, with many industrialized nations producing so few children, that their populations are shrinking. The primary way around this is allowing migrants from higher population countries. In Europe, this has meant lots of Moslems. While this has brought in some terrorists, the vast majority of migrants are looking for economic and educational opportunities. But it’s in Europe that you get the best look at the womens revolt in the Islamic world. The men are fighting back, and the rebellious Moslem women murdered in Western countries get reported. But they are now becoming news in countries like Pakistan as well.
While Islamic countries tend to have very low levels of education, especially for women, the introduction of satellite television and DVDs has enabled even illiterate women to learn that there are other options. Ignorance is an excellent form of control, but when the ignorance is lost, so is the control.
Thus in most Islamic countries, the women are having fewer children, and making more noise about economic and educational opportunities. This resonates with some of the better informed Islamic men. One reason the West, and other parts of the world, have enjoyed much better economic growth than the Moslem countries, is that they have added large number of educated women to their work force.
Losing control of the women is something that makes Islamic conservatives very angry. Murderously angry. This is a vicious, lethal battle taking place largely out of the media spotlight. But, long term, it is destroying the source of Islamic terrorism.